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    Debt versus Equity Financing
    "Why do things have to be so complicated?" said Bob to Andrew, as he sat at his desk shuffling
    papers around. "I need you to come up with a convincing argument." Bob's company, Symonds
    Electronics, had embarked upon an expansion project, which had the potential of increasing sales by
    about 30% per year over the next 5 years. The additional capital needed to finance the project had
    been estimated at $5,000,000. What Bob was wondering about was whether he should burden the firm
    with fixed rate debt or issue common stock to raise the needed funds. Having had no luck with getting
    the board of directors to vote on a decision, Bob decided to call on Andrew Lamb, his Chief Financial
    Officer, to shed some light on the matter.
    Bob Symonds, the Chief Executive Officer of Symonds Electronics, established his company about
    10 years ago in his hometown of Cincinnati, Ohio. After taking early retirement at age 55, Bob felt
    that he could really capitalize on his engineering knowledge and contacts within the industry. Bob
    remembered vividly how easily he had managed to get the company up and running by using
    $3,000,000 of his own savings and a five-year bank note worth $2,000,000. He recollected how
    uneasy he had felt about that debt burden and the 14% per year rate of interest that the bank had been
    charging him. He remembered distinctly how relieved he had been after paying off the loan one year
    earlier than its five-year term, and the surprised look on the bank manager's face.
    Business had been good over the years and sales had doubled about every 4 years. As sales began
    to escalate with the booming economy and thriving stock market, the firm had needed additional
    capital. Initially, Bob had managed to grow the business by using internal equity and spontaneous
    financing sources. However, about 5 years ago, when the need for financing was overwhelming, Bob
    decided to take the company public via an initial public offering (IPO) in the over-the-counter market.
    The issue was very successful and oversubscribed, mainly due to the superb publicity and marketing
    efforts of the investment underwriting company that Bob had hired. The company sold 1 million
    shares at $5 per share. The stock price had grown steadily over time and was currently trading at its
    book value of $15 per share.
    When the expansion proposal was presented at last week's board meeting, the directors were
    unanimous about the decision to accept the proposal. Based upon the estimates provided by the
    marketing department, the project had the potential of increasing revenues by between 10% (Worst
    Case) and 50% (Best Case) per year.
    The internal rate of return was expected to far outperform the company's weighted average cost of
    capital (hurdle rate). Ordinarily, the project would have been started using internal and spontaneous
    funds. However, at this juncture, the firm had already invested all its internal equity into the business.
    Thus, Bob and his colleagues were hard pressed to make a decision as to whether long-term debt or
    equity should be the chosen method of financing this time around.
    Upon contacting their investment bankers, Bob learned that they could issue 5-year notes, at par, at
    a rate of 10% per year. Conversely, the company could issue common stock at its current price of $15
    per share. Being unclear about what decision to make, Bob put the question to a vote by the directors.
    Unfortunately, the directors were equally divided in their opinion of which financing route should be
    chosen. Some of the directors felt that the tax shelter offered by debt would help reduce the firm's
    overall cost of capital and prevent the firm's earnings per share from being diluted. However, others
    had heard about "homemade leverage" and would not be convinced. They were of the opinion that it
    would be better for the firm to let investors leverage their investments themselves. They felt that
    equity was the way to go since the future looked rather uncertain and being rather conservative, they
    were not interested in burdening the firm with interest charges. Besides, they felt that the firm should
    take advantage of the booming stock market.
    Feeling rather frustrated and confused, Bob decided to call upon his chief financial officer, Andrew
    Lamb, to resolve this dilemma. Andrew had joined the company about two years ago. He had an
    MBA from a prestigious university and had recently completed his Chartered Financial Analysts'
    certification. Prior to joining Symonds, Andrew had worked at two other publicly traded
    manufacturing companies and had been successful in helping them raise capital at attractive rates,
    thereby lowering their cost of capital considerably.
    Andrew knew that he was in for a challenging task. He felt, however, that this was a good
    opportunity to prove his worth to the company. In preparation of his presentation, he got the latest
    balance sheet and income statement of the firm (see Tables 1 and 2) and started crunching out the
    numbers. The title of his presentation read, "Look Before You Leverage!"
    Table 1
    Symonds Electronics Inc.
    Latest Balance Sheet
    Cash 1,000,000 Accounts Payable 3,000,000
    Accounts Receivable 3,000,000 Accruals 2,000,000
    Inventory 4,000,000 Current Liabilities 5,000,000
    Current Asset 8,000,000 Paid in Capital 5,000,000
    Net Fixed Assets 12,000,000 Retained Earnings 10,000,000
    Total Assets 20,000,000 Total Liabilities and Owners' Equity 20,000,000
    Table 2
    Symonds Electronics Inc.
    Latest Income Statement
    Sales 15,000,000
    Cost of Goods Sold 10,500,000
    Gross Profits 4,500,000
    Selling and Administrative Expense 750,000
    Depreciation 1,500,000
    Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) 2,250,000
    Taxes (40%) 900,000
    Net Income 1,350,000
    3. What is the current weighted average cost of capital of the firm? What effect would a change
    in the debt to equity ratio have on the weighted average cost of capital and the cost of equity
    capital of the firm?
    5. If you were Andrew Lamb, what would you recommend to the board and why?
    6. What are some issues to be concerned about when increasing leverage?
    7. Is it fair to assume that if profitability were positively affected in the short run, due to the
    higher debt ratio, the stock price would increase? Explain.
    8. What is stock price in layman terms?Will firm will maximise shareholders wealth by foregoing short term profitability? Is it fair to assume stock price will increase in this scenario?
    9. Using suitable diagrams and the data in the case explain how Andrew Lamb could enlighten the board members about Modigliani and Miller's Propositions I and II (with corporate taxes)

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    Solution Preview

    The solution is provided on the attached excel sheet. See if this helps you in answering Q9

    Modigliani and Miller's Propositions I and II (with corporate taxes)

    Proposiiton 1

    VL = VU + TCD

    VL is the value of a levered firm.
    VU is ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution details out the debt versus equity financing opitons for Symonds Electronics and provides explanation in plain text and calculations in the attached Excel spreadsheet.