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Accounting: Costs and Income Statements

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Problem 5-15 Contribution Format versus Traditional Income Statement [LO4]
House of Organs, Inc., purchases organs from a well-known manufacturer and sells them at the retail level. The organs sell, on the average, for $2,500 each. The average cost of an organ from the manufacturer is $1,500.
House of Organs, Inc., has always kept careful records of its costs. The costs that the company incurs in a typical month are presented below in the form of a spreadsheet:

Costs Cost Formula
Selling:
Advertising $950 per month
Delivery of organs $60 per organ sold
Sales salaries and commissions $4,800 per month, plus 4% of sales
Utilities $650 per month
Depreciation of sales facilities $5,000 per month
Administrative:
Executive salaries $13,500 per month
Depreciation of office equipment $900 per month
Clerical $2,500 per month, plus $40 per organ sold
Insurance $700 per month
________________________________________

During November, the company sold and delivered 60 organs.

Requirement 1:
Prepare an income statement for November using the traditional format with costs organized by function.

House of Organs, Inc.
Income Statement
For the Month Ended November 30
__________ $ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
Selling and administrative expenses:
Selling expenses:
__________ $ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
Total selling expenses ____________
Administrative expenses:
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
Total administrative expenses ____________
Total selling and administrative expenses ____________
__________ $ ____________
________________________________________
Requirement 2:
Redo requirement 1 above, this time using the contribution format with costs organized by behavior. Show costs and revenues on both a total and a per unit basis down through contribution margin.

House of Organs, Inc.
Income Statement
For the Month Ended November 30

Total Per Unit
__________ $ ____________ $ ____________
Variable expenses:
__________ ____________ ____________
__________ ____________ ____________
__________ ____________ ____________
__________ ____________ ____________
Total variable expenses ____________ ____________
Contribution margin ____________ $ ____________
Fixed expenses:
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
__________ ____________
Total fixed expenses ____________
__________ $ ____________
________________________________________

________________________________________

Problem 5-23 High-Low Method; Predicting Cost [LO1, LO3]
Echeverria SA is an Argentinian manufacturing company whose total factory overhead costs fluctuate somewhat from year to year according to the number of machine-hours worked in its production facility. These costs (in Argentinian pesos) at high and low levels of activity over recent years are given below:

Level of Activity
Low High
Machine-hours 60,000 80,000
Total factory overhead costs 274,000 pesos 312,000 pesos
________________________________________

The factory overhead costs above consist of indirect materials, rent, and maintenance. The company has analyzed these costs at the 60,000 machine-hours level of activity as follows:

Indirect materials (variable) 90,000 pesos
Rent (fixed) 130,000
Maintenance (mixed) 54,000
Total factory overhead costs 274,000 pesos
________________________________________

For planning purposes, the company wants to break down the maintenance cost into its variable and fixed cost elements.

Requirement1:
Estimate how much of the factory overhead cost of 312,000 pesos at the high level of activity consists of maintenance cost. (Hint: To do this, it may be helpful to first determine how much of the 312,000 pesos cost consists of indirect materials and rent. Think about the behavior of variable and fixed costs.)

Maintenance cost ____________ pesos

Requirement2:
Using the high-low method, estimate a cost formula for maintenance where X represents the per machine-hour. Round the variable portion of the formula to 2 decimal places.)

Y = ____________ pesos + ____________ peso X

Requirement3:
What total overhead costs would you expect the company to incur at an operating level of 65,000 machine-hours?

Total overhead cost ____________ pesos

________________________________________

Problem 5-19 (Appendix 5A) Least-Squares Regression Method [LO5]
Sebolt Wire Company heats copper ingots to very high temperatures by placing the ingots in a large heat coil. The heated ingots are then run through a shaping machine that shapes the soft ingot into wire. Due to the long heat-up time, the coil is never turned off. When an ingot is placed in the coil, the temperature is raised to an even higher level, and then the coil is allowed to drop to the "waiting" temperature between ingots. Management needs to know the variable cost of power involved in heating an ingot and the fixed cost of power during "waiting" periods. The following data on ingots processed and power costs are available:

Month Ingots Power Cost
January 110 $ 5,500
February 90 $ 4,500
March 80 $ 4,400
April 100 $ 5,000
May 130 $ 6,000
June 120 $ 5,600
July 70 $ 4,000
August 60 $ 3,200
September 50 $ 3,400
October 40 $ 2,400
________________________________________

Requirement 1:
Using the least-squares regression method, estimate a cost formula for power cost, where "X" represents number of ingots processed. (Round the variable cost to the nearest cent and the fixed cost to the nearest dollar.

Y = $ ____________ + $ ____________ X

Requirement 2:
Which of the following statements are correct: (Select all that apply.)

(a) The quick-and-dirty scattergraph method is not imprecise.
(b) The high-low method is accurate only in those situations where the variable cost is truly constant, or where the high and the low points happen to fall on the correct regression line.
(c) The least squares regression method is generally considered to be the most accurate method of cost analysis.

________________________________________

Exercise 5-1 Fixed and Variable Cost Behavior [LO1]
Koffee Express operates a number of espresso coffee stands in busy suburban malls. The fixed weekly expense of a coffee stand is $1,100 and the variable cost per cup of coffee served is $0.26.

Requirement 1:
Fill in the following table with your estimates of total costs and cost per cup of coffee at the indicated levels of activity for a coffee stand. (Round cost of a cup of coffee to 3 decimal places.

Cups of Coffee Served in a Week
1,800 1,900 2,000
Fixed cost $ ____________ $ ____________ $ ____________
Variable cost ____________ ____________ ____________
Total cost $ ____________ $ ____________ $ ____________
Cost per cup of coffee served $ ____________ $ ____________ $ ____________
________________________________________
Requirement 2:
Does the cost per cup of coffee served increase, decrease, or remain the same as the number of cups of coffee served in a week increases?

(a) Increases
(b) Decreases
(c) Remains the same

________________________________________

Exercise 5-5 (Appendix 5A) Least-Squares Regression [LO5]
EZ Rental Car offers rental cars in an off-airport location near a major tourist destination in Florida. Management would like to better understand the behavior of the company's costs. One of those costs is the cost of washing cars. The company operates its own car wash facility in which each rental car that is returned is thoroughly cleaned before being released for rental to another customer. Management believes that the costs of operating the car wash should be related to the number of rental returns. Accordingly, the following data have been compiled:

Month Rental Returns Car Wash Costs
January 2,310 $ 10,113
February 2,453 $ 12,691
March 2,641 $ 10,905
April 2,874 $ 12,949
May 3,540 $ 15,334
June 4,861 $ 21,455
July 5,432 $ 21,270
August 5,268 $ 19,930
September 4,628 $ 21,860
October 3,720 $ 18,383
November 2,106 $ 9,830
December 2,495 $ 11,081
________________________________________

Required:
Using least-squares regression, estimate the fixed cost and variable cost elements of monthly car wash costs. (Round your fixed cost to the nearest dollar amount and the variable cost element to the nearest cent.

Fixed cost $ ____________
Variable cost $ ____________

________________________________________

Exercise 5-11 Scattergraph Analysis; High-Low Method [LO2, LO3]
The number of X-rays taken and X-ray costs over the last nine months in Beverly Hospital are given below:

Month X-Rays Taken X-Ray Costs
January 6,250 $ 28,000
February 7,000 $ 29,000
March 5,000 $ 23,000
April 4,250 $ 20,000
May 4,500 $ 22,000
June 3,000 $ 17,000
July 3,750 $ 18,000
August 5,500 $ 24,000
September 5,750 $ 26,000
________________________________________

Requirement 1:
Using the high-low method, what X-ray costs would you expect to be incurred during a month in which 3,800 X-rays are taken?

Total cost $ ____________

Requirement 2:
Using the high-low method, what X-ray costs would you expect to be incurred during a month in which 4,300 X-rays are taken?

Total cost $ ____________

________________________________________

© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 16, 2018, 10:08 pm ad1c9bdddf
https://brainmass.com/business/finance/accounting-costs-and-income-statements-209891

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Five problems: Overhead, Variable Costing Income Statements, Activity-Based Costing Data

Exercise 5-14
White Company, Cutting and Finishing Department
Compute the predetermined overhead rate to be used in each department.
Figure the cost of Job 203.

Problem 5-23
High Desert Potteryworks, job-order costing system
Compute the predetermined overhead rate during the year for Molding Department and Painting Department
What was the amount of overapplied or underapplied overhead in each department?

Exercise 5A-2
Overhead rates and capacity issues
Security Pension Services
Marta Brinksi

Problem 6-18 variable costing, sales constant, production varies, lean productions
Bill Sharp of Essex Company
Absorption costing, variable costing, unit product cost

Exercise 7-15
Hiram's Lakeside, calculating and interpreting activity-based costing data

------------------------

SEE ATTACHED FOR BETTER FORMATTING:

EXERCISE 5-14 Departmental Overhead Rates [L02, L03, L04]
White Company has two departments, Cutting and Finishing. The company uses a job-order costing system and computes a predetermined overhead rate in each department. The Cutting Department bases its rate on machine-hours, and the Finishing Department bases its rate on direct labor cost. At the beginning of the year, the company made the following estimates:

Department

Cutting Finishing
Direct labor-hours ....................................................... 6,000 30,000
Machine-hours ........................................................... 48,000 5,000
Manufacturing overhead cost .................................... $360,000 $486,000
Direct labor cost ........................:..............................,. $50,000 $270,000

Required:
1. Compute the predetermined overhead rate to be used in each department.
2. Assume that the overhead rates that you computed in (1) above are in effect. The job cost sheet for
Job 203, which was started and completed during the year, showed the following:

Compute the total overhead cost applied to Job 203.
3. Would you expect substantially different amounts of overhead cost to be assigned to some jobs if the company used a plantwide overhead 1'ate based on direct labor cost,. rather than using departmental
rates? Explain. No computations are necessary.

Multiple Departments; Applying Overhead [L03, L04, L05]
High Desert Potteryworks makes a variety of pottery products that it sells to retailers such as Home Depot. The company uses a job-order costing system in 'which predetermined overhead rates are used to apply manufacturing overhead cost to jobs. The predetermined overhead rate in the Molding Department is based on machine-hours, and the rate in the Painting Depattment is based on direct labor cost. At the beginning of the year, the company's management made the following estimates:

The following information pertains to Job. 205, which was started on August 1 and completed on
August 10.

Department

Molding Painting
Direct labor-hours ........................................................ 30 85
Machine-hours ............................................................. 110 20
Materials placed into production .................................. $470 $332
Direct labor cost ........................................................... $290 $680

Systems Design: Job-Order Costing !!!

Required:
1. Compute the predetermined overhead rate used during the year in the Molding Department. Compute the rate used in the Painting Department.
2. Compute the total overhead cost applied to Job 205.
3. What would be the total cost recorded for Job 205? If the job contained 50 units, what would be the unit product cost?
4. At the end of the year, the records of High Desert Potteryworks revealed the following actual cost and operating data for all jobs worked on during the year:

What was the amount of underapplied or overapplied overhead in each department at the end of the year?

5A- Overhead Rates and Capacity' Issues [L03, L04, L05, LOB]
Security Pension Services helps clients to set up and administer pension plans that are in compliance with tax laws and regulatory requirements. The firm uses a job-order costing system in which overhead is applied to clients' accounts on the basis of professional staff hours charged to the accounts. Data concern ing two recent years appear below:

"Professional staff hours available" is a measure of the capacity of the firm. Any hours available that are not charged to clients' accounts represent unused capacity. All of the firm's overhead is fixed.
Required:
1. Marta Brinksi is an established client whose pension plan was set up many years ago. In both 2008 and 2009, only 2.5 hours of professional staff time were charged to Ms. Brinksi's account. If the company bases its predetermined overhead rate on the estimated overhead cost and the estimated professional staff hours to be charged to clients, how much overhead cost would have been applied to Ms. Blinksi's account in 2008? In 2009?
2. Suppose that the company bases its predetermined overhead rate on the estimated overhead cost and the estimated professional staff hours to be charged to clients as in (1) above. Also suppose that the actual professional staff hours charged to clients' accounts and the actual overhead costs turn out to be exactly as estimated in both years. By how much would the overhead be underapplied or overapplied in 2008? In 2009?
3. Refer back to the data concerning Ms. Brinksi in (1) above. If the company bases its predetermined overhead rate on the professional staff hours available, how much overhead cost would have been applied to Ms. Brinksi's account in 2008? In 2009?

4. Suppose that the company bases its predetermined overhead rate on the professional staff hours avail­ able as in (3) above. Also suppose that the actual professional staff hours charged to clients' accounts and the actual overhead costs turn out to be exactly as estimated in both years. By how much would
-the overhead be underapplied or overapplied in 2008? In 2009?

{PROBLEM 6- Variable Costing Income Statements; Sales Constant, Production Varies; (ean Production [LOl, L02, L03, L04]
"This makes no sense at all," said Bill Sharp, president of Essex Company. "We sold the same number of units this year as we did last year, yet our profits have more than doubled. Who made the goof-the computer or the people who operate it?" The statements to which Mr. Sharp was referring are shown below (absorption costing basis):

Sales (20,000 units each year) ............................................... Cost of goods sold ..................................................................
Gross margin .......................................................................... Selling and administrative expenses ......................................
Net operating income .............................................................

Year1 Year2
$700,000
460,000
240,000
200,000
$ 40,000

The statements above show the results of the first two years of operation. In the first year, the company produced and sold 20,000 units; in the second year, the company again sold 20,000 units, but it increased production as shown below:

Year 1 Year2
Production in units ........................................................................... 20,000 25,000
Sales in units ................................................................................... 20,000 20,000
Variable manufacturing cost per unit produced ............................... $8 $8
Variable selling and administrative expense per unit sold ............... $1 $1
Fixed manufacturing overhead costs (total) ..................................... $300,000 $300,000

Essex Company applies fixed manufacturing overhead costs to its only product on the basis of each year's production. Thus, a new fixed manufacturing overhead rate is computed each year.
Required:
1. Compute the unit product cost for each year under:
a. Absorption costing.
b. Variable costing.
2. Prepare a contribution format variable costing income statement for each year.
3. Reconcile the variable costing and absorption costing net operating income figures for each year.
4. Explain to the president why, under absorption costing, the net operating income for Year 2 was higher than the net operating income for Year 1, although the same number of units was sold in each year.
5. a. Explain how operations would have differed in Year 2 if the company had been using Lean Production and ending inventories had been eliminated.
b. If Lean Production had been used during Year 2, what would the company's net operating income have been under absorption costing? Explain the reason for any difference between this income figure and the figure reported by the company in the statements above.

I RCISE 7-l;balculating and Interpreting Activity-Based Co ting Data [L03, L04]
Hiram's Lakeside is a popular restaurant located on Lake Washington in Seattle. The owner of the restaurant has been trying to better understand costs at the restaurant and has hired a student intern to conduct an activity-based costing study. The intern, in consultation with the owner, identified three major activities and then completed the first-stage allocations of costs to the activity cost pools. The results appear below.

Activity Cost Pool

Serving a party of diners ............. Serving a diner ............................ Serving drinks..............................

Activity Measure

Number of parties served Number of diners served Number of drinks ordered

Total Cost

$33,000
$138,000
$24,000

Total Activity

6,000 parties
15,000 diners
10,000 drinks

The above costs include all of the costs of the restaurant except for organization-sustaining costs such as rent, property taxes, and top-management salaries.
A group of diners who ask to sit at the same table are counted as a party. Some costs, such as the costs of cleaning linen, are the same whether one person is at a table or the table is full. Other costs, such as washing dishes, depend on the number of diners served.
Prior to the activity-based costing study, the owner knew very little about the costs of the restaurant. She knew that the total cost for the month (including organization-sustaining costs) was $240,000 and that
15,000 diners had been served. Therefore, the average cost per diner was $16.
Required:
1. According to the activity-based costing system, what is the total cost of serving each of the following parties of diners?
a. A party of four diners who order three drinks in total.
b. A party of two diners who do not order any drinks.
c. A lone diner who orders two drinks.
2. Convert the total costs you computed in (1) above to costs per diner. In other words, what is the average cost per diner for serving each of the following parties?
a. A party of four diners who order three drinks in total.
b. A party of two diners who do not order any drinks.
c. A lone diner who orders two drinks.
3. Why do the costs per diner for the three different parties differ from each otl1er and from the overall average cost of $16 per diner?

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