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Health Policies & Determinants

Please help me with these questions. Thank you for this assistance.

1. Discuss the ways that health can be conceptualized by a society.
2. What are the determinants of health in humans?
3. What is the connection between how a society defines health and how it pursues health? Has increased access to technology changed that perception over the last decade?
4. Discuss the connection between health policies, health determinants, and health.


1) Assess the effect of changes in health policy on healthcare management.

2) Discuss the opportunities provided by technology for businesses.

3) Recognize situations that present potential legal and ethical issues and develop solutions for those issues.

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1. Discuss the ways that health can be conceptualized by a society. What are the determinants of health in humans? What is the connection between how a society defines health and how it pursues health? Has increased access to technology changed that perception over the last decade?

In society, health can be conceptualized in various ways, depending on the theory one holds about health e.g. the medical model e.g. the absence of disease versus the wellness model. The determinants of health are also empirically and theoretical based. Health policies develop out of researched and emerging health determinants. As new health factors arise in society e.g. cancer linked to cigarette smoking, then new health determinants and health polices also emerge and develop.

The most widely accepted definition of good health is that of the World Health Organization Constitution. It states "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" (World Health Organization, 1946). In more recent years, this statement has been amplified to include the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life". The WHO definition is not without criticism, though mainly that it is too broad. Some argue that health cannot be defined as a state at all, but must be seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living and of the changing meanings we give to life. It is a dynamic concept. The WHO definition is therefore considered by many as an idealistic goal rather than a realistic proposition. Saying that though, it is still the most widely accepted definition of good health. Using the WHO definition classifies 70-95% of people as unhealthy, so sometimes a wellness model is also adapted. In spite of the above limitations, the concept of health as defined by WHO is broad and positive in its implications. It sets out a high standard for positive health. It represents the overall goal that nations should strive to reach.

However, it is not the only conceptualized definition of health. For example, in the medical field, health is commonly defined as an organism's ability to efficiently respond to challenges (stressors) and effectively restore and sustain a "state of balance," known as homeostasis.
The most solid health determinants of the wellness model (as opposed to the medical model) that fit firmly in the realm of medicine are the environmental health, nutrition, disease prevention, and public health matters that can be investigated and assist in measuring well-being. Health determinants emerge out of theory and health issues that arise in society e.g., eating calcium leads to strong bones etc. has resulted in food guides to be developed.

Health Determinants

In Canadian society, for example, the LaLonde report suggested that there are four general determinants of health, which he (Minister of National Health and Welfare) called "human biology", "environment", "lifestyle", and "healthcare organization. "The LaLonde report is a 1974 report produced in Canada entitled A new perspective on the health of Canadians. It is considered the first report acknowledged by a major industrialised nation to state that health is determined by more than just biological factors. As a result of this, it proposed a so-called field of health. This health field represented health as being dependent upon four related aspects e.g., health determinants -

1. Biology
2. Environment, lifestyle
3. Access to healthcare services.
4. It was also fundamental in identifying health inequalities.

Thus, based on this report made by the Minister of National Health and Welfare health, in Canadian society, broad health determinants are biology, environment, lifestyle and access to healthcare services, ...

Solution Summary

The solution is given in the form of a detailed discussion on perspectives and attitudes toward health as well as the changes and opportunities in management and technology there. 2341 with many references throughout.