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    Leverage and Power in Nogotiation

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    Describe how you think power and influence tactics interact with gender during negotiations. How does the gender of whom you are negotiating with affect the influence tactic you use ? What differences have you experienced when negotiating with males and females ?

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    Women's movement into management positions over the past forty years has propelled an abundance of research into the similarities and differences between female and male managers (for meta-analysis reviews, see Dindia and Allen, 1992; Wilkins and Andersen, 1991). The primary question fueling this gender research is whether the behaviors of men and women are situation-bound or the result of more stable, gender differences.

    Similar debate exists concerning men's and women's choice of upward influence tactics, defined as communication that is used intentionally by lower-power participants to change the behavior of higher-power participants in organizations (Waldron, 1999). The ability to exert influence on the decisions made by a supervisor is an important objective. How employees persuasively frame their upward influence has been shown to impact performance ratings (Kipnis and Vanderveer, 1971), organizational influence (Floyd and Wooldridge, 1997), promotability (Thacker and Wayne, 1995),job effectiveness (Yukl and Tracey, 1992), and supervisor's liking of the employee (Wayne and Ferris, 1990). Moreover, upward influence helps to make organizations more democratic and receptive to change (Waldron, 1999).

    This study answers the call for additional research on gender, power, and upward influence tactics (Ringer and Boss, 2000; Schlueter et al., 1990) by developing a theoretical rationale for examining why there might be potential gender differences in upward influence tactic choices. First, pertinent literature on upward influence, gender, and power is reviewed. Next, the method is outlined. Results are then presented and discussed. Finally, implications are offered for research and employees.

    Upward Influence Tactics, Gender, and Power

    Upward Influence Tactics Defined

    The well-regarded taxonomies provided by Kipnis et al. (1980) and Schriesheim and Hinkin (1990) indicate that there are six types of ...

    Solution Summary

    Leverage and power in negotiation are examined.