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Decision Making in Management and Business

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Summarize the role of decision making in business.
Describe common biases in decision making.
Interpret reflective and expedient decision making.
Apply the standard of APA style to all research and writing tasks.
Apply critical thinking skills to analyze business situations.

1. How will accomplishing these objectives support your success in management?
2. What risks or challenges might a manager encounter if they have not mastered these objectives? Explain.

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Summarize the role of decision making in business.
Decision making is the most important action in a business. Decision making involves gathering all the information possible, analyzing it, considering alternatives, and choosing the best action for the problem. Without decision making, there is no business. Decisions are necessary for every business. Opening a business is a decision. Decision making needs to apply the skills of critical thinking. Considering alternatives and having enough information helps make decisions easier. However, bad decisions can happen, often with the most comprehensive information available. Sometimes this is because the time constraints put pressure on the decision maker. Sometimes the choices are limited or the information is incorrect. While every decision leads to either success or failure, the skill to make decisions takes practice and input where possible from the most reliable sources.

Describe common biases in decision making.
Self interest is when a person ignores the effect of a decision on others beyond the decision maker or the decision maker's department. The best way to address such bias is to view each decision as an opportunity to make the best decision for the most people.

Harmony or groupthink is when each decision is made with an attempt to please the people likely to reward or help the decision maker. This could be an individual or a specific group. Groupthink strives for consensus and people sometimes make decisions they think the group wants to hear or to be made.

Anchoring bias means trying to maintain the status quo and avoid risks or problems even when ...

Solution Summary

This is review of information about decision making and how it relates to successful management.

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Analyze political, social, ethical and legal differences and their impact on management decision making

Antitrust laws were essentially created to stop businesses that got too large from blocking competition and abusing their power. Mergers and monopolies can limit the choices offered to consumers because smaller businesses are not usually able to compete. Although free and open competition ensures lower prices and new and better products, it has the potential to significantly limit market diversity.

Look at the 2 examples below of how mergers and acquisitions have affected the way in which companies do business.
Read each of the 2 examples below. Decide which one you would like to use for your project and answer the following questions.

- Identify the two firms with similar problems from different countries
- Conduct a comparative analysis of the firms
- Analyze political, social, ethical and legal differences and their impact on management decision making
- Provide substantive conclusion and recommendations

Example 1
Federal antitrust enforcers are investigating whether a multinational pharmaceutical company has attempted to minimize the impact of generic competition to one of its most profitable prescription drugs. This anti-depressant drug is the company's best seller, with sales last year of $2.11 billion, representing a 22% increase from the year before.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is conducting an investigation to determine whether the company has engaged in activities to prevent generic alternatives to the prescription drug from entering the market. Specifically, the FTC is challenging a practice among brand-name and generic-drug manufacturers to agree to delay the introduction of the lower priced generic drugs to the market.

Answer the following questions:
- Why would the drug maker want to stymie generic competition? Explain.
- What types of legal barriers to market entry exist?
- What are the possible ethical dilemmas present in this example?

Example 2
The boards of 2 major telecommunications companies recently agreed to a $16 billion-dollar merger that would create the world's largest telecommunications company in the world. Although some agree that the synergy between these companies could be dynamic, others feel consumers could ultimately pay the price for the merger depending on which company becomes dominant in the various service areas.

Answer the following questions:
- Why do you think consumer advocates have expressed concern over such merger possibilities?
- Other than pricing, what are some pitfalls that consumers might have to deal with when 2 major companies merge?
- What are the possible ethical dilemmas present in this example?


Many organizations have established policies to remedy discrimination when hiring women and minorities. Discuss whether you feel that affirmative action programs, reverse discrimination, and criteria of comparable worth are appropriate forms of remedy. Using the textbook, course materials, and Web resources, research affirmative action, reverse discrimination, and comparable worth and answer the following questions:
- Do you feel that these concepts are appropriate forms of remedy in the workplace? Explain.
- What else do you think could be done to eliminate discrimination in the workplace?

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