Company ABC Fund started the year with a NAV of $12.50.
By the year-end, its NAV equals $12.10.
The fund paid year-end distribution of income and capital gains of $1.50.
What was the (pretax) rate of return to an investor in the fund?
Please explain as well as show mathematically.
Please support with two references.
This solution discusses net asset value pretax rate of a return for a fund.