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Sun and stars

Here is what my team of 2 people need to do (A-F)and we don't know how to get it started. I only need help with Part A & D and then my partner and I will see how this is supposed to go. Please make Part A & D.

a. The internal structure of the Sun and how astronomers learn about the Sun's interior (JUST EXPLAIN WHY & HOW)

d. The Sun is a star. Briefly outline the evolution of a star and where the Sun is in its life cycle.(JUST EXPLAIN WHY & HOW)

Take a "how" and "why" approach (science) rather than a series of unrelated facts (not science). Please provide references.

Solution Preview

a. The sun is the largest mass in the solar system with a temperature of 5800 K (Kelvin which is a measurement. Water boils at 210 degrees Fahrenheit and 373 Kelvin). The sun is made up of the gases helium and hydrogen. It is 28% helium and 70% hydrogen with metals making up less than 2% of the structure.

The internal temperature is 15,600,000 K at its core. The sun is not a solid body, but a gas one and its rotation is just over 25 days at its equator and 36 days at the poles. This is due to the gas make up. The gases move at different speeds. Also, the temperature and varying rotations mean the makeup of the planets gases and metals is always changing. At the core along with the temperature of 15.6 K, the pressure is 250 atmospheres (of pressure), making it 150 times denser than water. The extremely high heat creates nuclear reactions. The hydrogen gases are turned into helium. Four hydrogen nuclei are, by nuclear fusion turned into one helium nucleus. The next level up from the core is mostly radiation, which can range from the 15 billion degrees down to 1 million degrees. It takes many years for the radioactive photons to pass through this level ...

Solution Summary

A discussion on the properties of the sun and stars including materials, temperature, and life cycles of stars.