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Newton's Law of Gravitation

Ocean tides are produced primarily by the gravitational attraction of the Moon. Explain how this attraction gives rise to two tidal "bulges" on opposite sides of the Earth, resulting in two daily high tides and two daily low tides. [hint: Consider the inverse-square relationship of the distance in the gravitational force acting on the water on opposite sides of the Earth and on the Earth itself]

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Lets first consider the simpler case of the gravitational attraction between just Earth and moon. The gravitational attraction between the two occurs everywhere, but is strongest on the side of Earth that faces the moon, simply because that is where the two spheres are closest. Inertia is also active here, but the gravitational force slightly exceeds it and pull the water toward the moon. This ...