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approaches to pollution abatement

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Use economic analysis to evaluate the following statement: The only amount of acceptable pollution is no pollution at all.

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Zero pollution is not a feasible position. We tend to think of pollution as a modern phenomenon, but whenever people congregate in large numbers, pollution results. It occurred in ancient civilizations just as it does today, although on a much smaller scale. So, we cannot expect any industry to be entirely pollution-free. The earth has many systems that eliminate pollution, and the important thing is not to allow them to become overwhelmed, which will disrupt global cycles (as we are with greenhouse gases) and not to create pollution so quickly that it builds up to harmful levels before the earth can remove it. In addition we must consider that the costs of cleaning the environment are often passed on to consumers through higher prices.

Therefore economically speaking pollution will continue until the benefits of polluting outweigh the costs. The costs specifically are health consequences of pollution, and the ...

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Multiple Choice

I am looking for help on the following multiple choice questions.

1. At the equilibrium output for a monopolistic competitor:
Price equals marginal cost equals marginal revenue
Price equals average total cos equals marginal revenue
Marginal cost equals marginal revenue equals average total costs
Price equals average total cost and marginal cost equals marginal

2. For a cartel to be successful in increasing economic profits for its
Entry of new firms must be blocked
Price must be set equal to marginal cost
Individual firms must be encouraged to adjust output so as to maximize
their own profits at the cartel price
Price must be set equal to average total cost

3. Once vaccinated a person cannot catch a cold nor give a cold to someone else. As a result the marginal social benefit resulting from consumption of the vaccine:
Exceeds the marginal benefit received by consumers of the vaccine
Equals the marginal social cost of producing the vaccine in a
competitive equilibrium.
is less than the marginal benefit received by consumers of the

4. A rightward shift of the marginal social benefit curve for pollution
Has no effect on the efficient percentage reduction in polluting
Makes it efficient to spend more on pollution abatement.
Makes it efficient to spend less on pollution abatement.
Makes pollution abatement cheaper.

5. A 2004 article written immediately after the re-election of George
W. Bush referred to his environmental policy system where power
plants buy and sell the right to pollute in the form of emission
credits. Do economists tend to favor this approach to pollution
No; these programs are ineffective because they encourage major
polluters to free ride on the efforts of others.
No; it is possible for some firms to do nothing if they simply buy
enough credits.
Yes; they encourage all firms to cut pollution by the same
Yes; they believe that such a proposal would achieve a level of
pollution reduction with the lowest cost to society.

6. If a positive externality is associated with the purchase of smoke
The marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds their price
The marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is zero
The marginal social benefit of smoke detectors equals their price
More than the efficient quantity of smoke detectors will be sold

7. What do economists mean when they say there is "market failure"?
Business has introduced a product that consumers did not want
Free markets have led to excessive profits
Markets have surpluses or shortages so that government rationing is
Free markets yield results that economists do not consider socially

8. A market for information is more likely to develop even in the
absence of government regulation of information as long as the
Cost of information is zero
Benefit of information is zero
Cost of information exceeds the marginal benefit
Benefit of information exceeds the marginal cost

9. A widget has an opportunity cost of 4 wadgets in Saudi Arabia and 2
wadgets in the United States. Given these opportunity costs, you
would suggest that:
Saudi Arabia specialize in widgets and the US in wadgets
No trade should take place
Saudi Arabia specialize in wadgets and the US in widgets
Both countries produce an equal amount of each.

10. Some residents of Key West, an island located at the end of the
Florida Keys, fly the flag of the Conch Republic to empahasize that
they are different from the rest of the U.S. Suppose that Key West
separated from the U.S. and that all trade between it and the rest
of the U.S. ceased. What would happen?
The U.S. would be little affected while the effects on the Key West
would be large.
Key West would be little affected while the effects on the U.S.
would be large
Both the U.S. and Key West would be affected about equally
We cannot know without knowing about their bargaining abilities

11. Isolationism a policy of trying to minimize a nations political and
economic interactions with the rest of the world:
Has always been key part of American politics
Was important until the late 19th century and then declined
Rose in America in the late 19th century and was an important
political element until World War II
Rose to importance in the U.S. after World War II

12. All of the following are arguments in support of protectionist
legislation except
Supporting infant industries
Preserving domestic employment
Increasing global trade
Promoting National Security

13. In the early 2000s, China taxed its textile exports when the
international quota system for textiles expired. Many countries
were worried about rapid Chines expansion into textiles, and there
was discussion of new tariffs and quotas to slow an anticipated
increase in Chinese exports. Is there any advantage to China for
imposing export tariffs rather than having importers impose import
No; Both result in fewer jobs in China and higher prices in the U.S.
Yes; With a Chinese export tariff, China would get the revenue,
whereas with an American import tariff, the U.S. would get the
Yes; With the Chinese export tariff, China will lose fewer jobs than
it would with an American import tariff
Yes; with the Chinese export tariff, prices will not rise in the U.S.
as they would with an American import tariff

14. If the primary purpose of a tariff is to completely eliminate foreign
competition, it will be expected to:
Raise either a large or a small amount of revenue depending on the
magnitude of the tariff imposed
Raise a relatively large amount of tax revenue
Raise an amount of revenue equal to the amount of the tariff
multiplied by the volume of exports
Raise a relatively small amount of tax revenue.

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