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M&M with Corporate Taxes

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Sci-fi is originally all equity financed (unlevered). All earnings are paid out as dividends, and the growth rate is zero. The firm decides to issue $8,000,000 in debt at 6% and to use the proceeds to repurchase stock. The capital structure change is permanent (so debt is perpetual). Fill in all of the missing information in the table below.

Unlevered Levered
EBIT 7,500,000 7,500,000
INTEREST
EBT
Taxes (40%)
Net Income
#Shares 1,000,000
EPS
Unlevered return 10% 10%
Return on Equity rS
Price
Firm Value (V)
WACC

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https://brainmass.com/economics/personal-finance-savings/m-m-with-corporate-taxes-514089

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Unlevered Levered
EBIT $7,500,000 $7,500,000
INTEREST $0 $480,000
EBT ...

Solution Summary

Solution calculates the missing information and completes the table. Calculations are carried out in MS Excel format.

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David Lyons, CEO of Lyons Solar Technologies, is concerned about his firm's level of debt financing. The company uses short-term debt to finance its temporary working capital needs, but it does not use any permanent (long-term) debt. Other solar technology companies average about 30% debt, and Mr. Lyons wonders why they use so much more debt and how it affects stock prices. To gain some insights into the matter, he poses the following questions to you, his recently hired assistant:

a. BusinessWeek recently ran an article on companies' debt policies, and the names Modigliani and Miller (MM) were mentioned several times as leading researchers on the theory of capital structure. Briefly, who are MM, and what assumptions are embedded in the MM and Miller models?

b. Assume that Firms U and L are in the same risk class, and that both have EBIT = $500,000. Firm U uses no debt financing, and its cost of equity is rsU = 14%. Firm L has $1 million of debt outstanding at a cost of rd = 8%. There are no taxes.

Assume that the MM assumptions hold, and then:
(1) Find V, S, rs, and WACC for Firms U and L.
(2) Graph (a) the relationships between capital costs and leverage as measured
by D/V, and (b) the relationship between value and D.

David Lyons, CEO of Lyons Solar Technologies, is concerned about his firm's level of debt financing. The company uses short-term debt to finance its temporary working capital needs, but it does not use any permanent (long-term) debt. Other solar technology companies average about 30% debt, and Mr. Lyons wonders why they use so much more debt and how it affects stock prices. To gain some insights into the matter, he poses the following questions to you, his recently hired assistant:

a. BusinessWeek recently ran an article on companies' debt policies, and the names Modigliani and Miller (MM) were mentioned several times as leading researchers on the theory of capital structure. Briefly, who are MM, and what assumptions are embedded in the MM and Miller models?

b. Assume that Firms U and L are in the same risk class, and that both have EBIT = $500,000. Firm U uses no debt financing, and its cost of equity is rsU = 14%. Firm L has $1 million of debt outstanding at a cost of rd = 8%. There are no taxes.

Assume that the MM assumptions hold, and then:
(1) Find V, S, rs, and WACC for Firms U and L.
(2) Graph (a) the relationships between capital costs and leverage as measured
by D/V, and (b) the relationship between value and D.

c. Using the data given in part b, but now assuming that Firms L and U are both subject to a 40% corporate tax rate, repeat the analysis called for in b-(1) and b-(2) under the MM with-tax model.

d. Now suppose investors are subject to the following tax rates: Td = 30% and Ts = 12%.
(1) What is the gain from leverage according to the Miller model?
(2) How does this gain compare with the gain in the MM model with corporate taxes?
(3) What does the Miller model imply about the effect of corporate debt on the value of the firm; that is, how do personal taxes affect the situation?

e. What capital structure policy recommendations do the three theories (MM without taxes, MM with corporate taxes, and Miller) suggest to financial managers? Empirically, do firms appear to follow any one of these guidelines?

f. How is the analysis in part c different if Firms U and L are growing? Assume that both firms are growing at a rate of 7% and that the investment in net operating assets required to support this growth is 10% of EBIT.

g. What if L's debt is risky? For the purpose of this example, assume that the value of L's operations is $4 million - which is the value of its debt plus equity. Assume also that its debt consists of 1-year zero coupon bonds with a face value of $2 million. Finally, assume that L's volatility is 0.60 (Ï? = 0.60) and that the risk-free rate is 6%.

h. What is the value of L's stock for volatilities between 0.20 and 0.95? What incentives might the manager of L have if she understands this relationship? What might debtholders do in response?

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