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    My problem is the international monetary system with exchange rates, interest rates, and the accounting system.

    Question 1
    Which of the following transactions would contribute to a US current account surplus and why (make sure that you justify, in each case, why would the transaction would/would not contribute to a current account surplus):
    a. IBM barters a $100 million worth of computers to Jamaica in exchange for $100 million worth of hotel services on the island.
    b. The US borrows $100 million long term from Europe to buy $100 million of European goods this year.
    c. The US sells a $100 million worth of arms to Israel for $100 million bank deposits.
    d. The US government makes a gift of $100 million to the government of Colombia, in the form of New York bank deposits, to pay for damages caused by US bombings in heroin plantations.
    e. The European Central Bank buys $100 million in US-dollar bank deposits from a New York bank, paying by providing euro bank deposits to the New York bank.

    Question 2
    Assume that in 1980, the price level for the US was 100, the price level for the UK was also 100, and in the foreign exchange market one pound sterling was equal to $1. In 2001, the US price level had risen to 310 and the UK price level had risen to 420.
    a. According to PPP, what should be the $/pound sterling exchange rate in 2001?
    b. If the actual $/pound sterling exchange rate is $1/pound sterling in 2001, is the pound sterling overvalued or undervalued relative to PPP?

    Question 3
    A country now has a floating exchange rate. Its government would like to fix the exchange rate value of its currency to another currency. You have been hired as an advisor to the country's government. Suggest three major criteria for deciding what other country's currency to fix to. (You needn't mention any specific country, just analyze the important criteria). Why is each important?

    Question 4
    "Countries whose currencies are linked to each other through fixed exchange rates usually pursue very different monetary and fiscal policies". Do you agree or disagree? Why?

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    https://brainmass.com/economics/monetary-policy/international-monetary-system-exchange-rates-interest-1532

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    Question 1
    - "Current account surplus" is Net Export reflected on the Balance of International Payments, which means if the Export overpasses Import, the transaction would contribute to US current account surplus.
    - Transaction (a) would not contribute to a US current account surplus. Because Export equals Import. (hotel service is also an item of Current Account)
    - Transaction (b) would not contribute to a US current account surplus, actually it will cause Current Account Deficit. Because there's only Import in this transaction. (Long term loan is an item of Capital Account)
    - Transaction (c) would contribute to a US current account surplus. Because there's only Export in this transaction.
    - Transaction (d) would not contribute to a US current account surplus. Because no export involved in this transaction. (transfer payments is also a debit item of Current Account)
    - Transaction (e) would not contribute to a US current account surplus. Because no international trade involved in this transaction. (Only items of Capital Account are involved.)

    Question 2
    - PPP is Purchasing-Power Parity, which means the exchange rate depends on the price of the goods in each country.
    - (a) The $/pound sterling exchange rate in 2001 is 420/310 = 1.355
    - (b) If the actual $/pound sterling exchange rate is $1/pound sterling, which is lower than the calculated rate by PPP, the pound sterling is undervalued obviously, i.

    Question 3
    A country now has a floating exchange rate. Its government would like to fix the exchange rate value of its currency to another currency. You have been hired as an advisor to the country's government. Suggest three major criteria for deciding what other country's currency to fix to. (You needn't mention any specific country, just analyze the important criteria). Why is each important?
    - The foreign currency itself is hard currency, which will not float inconsistently in the international exchange market. Such countries usually have large gold reserves and high competitive power. By fixing to it, the domestic currency is relatively stable too.
    - A country whose Capital Market is not totally connected with domestic Capital Market. This requires that capital not flow freely between the two countries. Otherwise, speculators will easily use the fixed exchange rate by selling domestic currency.
    - There's no huge disparity in price index and international trade between foreign and domestic countries. The monetary policies are similar in the two countries. Otherwise, the fixed exchange rate will hold back economic adjustment and control over domestic interest rate.

    Question 4
    - I don't agree with this.
    Countries whose currencies are linked to each other through fixed exchange rates should apply similar monetary and fiscal policies.
    They should have the same interest rate in the open capital market. Otherwise, capital will flow from countries with low interest rate to those with high rate, which will cause large demand of currency of the latter and, in turn, brings up its exchange rate.
    On the other hand, if their fiscal policies are very different. For example, one country raises its government expenditure by import. This will cause large demand of foreign currency and, in turn, brings down the domestic currency.

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com September 26, 2022, 8:44 am ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/economics/monetary-policy/international-monetary-system-exchange-rates-interest-1532

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