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A. What is the ratio of Chapter 7 to Chapter 11 filings for businesses?

b. What is the typical time span for filing for chapter 11, confirmation, and successful completion of the reorganization plan?

c. What are the most common reasons that force an individual to file for bankruptcy?

d. What kind of individual debts may not be discharged through a Chapter 7 filing?

e. If a debtor is unable to make payment under a chapter 13 plan, can it be modified?

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a. What is the ratio of Chapter 7 to Chapter 11 filings for businesses?

To take a closer look at bankruptcy filings and rates across the U.S. and compare them to those filed in Pennsylvania, researchers from Indiana University of Pennsylvania, through a grant from the Center for Rural Pennsylvania, collected and analyzed bankruptcy data. To complete the analysis and the report, researchers Dr. Martha Troxell, Dr. Robert Boldin, and Dr. Mohamed Albohali, obtained bankruptcy data from the U.S. Courts Statistical Division for the 20-year period from 1980 to 1999. The researchers compared bankruptcy information according to the type of bankruptcy (business and non-business), the chapter of bankruptcy (7, 11, 12 and 13), and by whether the bankruptcy was in a rural or an urban area.

The findings were:

For all filings, an average of 69.5 percent are Chapter 7 (liquidation), 26.5 percent are Chapter 13 (consumer debt adjustment), and 4 percent are Chapter 11 (reorganization). Similar patterns emerge whether the bankruptcies are rural or urban.

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