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Saving: Investment in a circular flow

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Why does investment spending not equal saving in the circular flow?

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Saving is equal to investment in a simplified circular flow economy without government and no international trade. In this simplified economy, all economic activities are the interactions between households and firms. In this ...

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In a closed economy with government, saving must equal investment. This is because outputs are either consumed by households (consumption) or by firms (investment). Unconsumed income must be equal to saving. It follows that saving is equal to investment. However, in an opened economy with government, the equality doesn't hold because saving and investment are also inclusive of from foreigners and some portion of income goes to taxes as well.

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what are the "leakages" and "injections"

1. In the circular flow model of the economy, what are the "leakages?" Define them.

2. In the circular flow model of the economy, what are the "injections?" Define them.

3. Explain why the leakages must equal the injections for the economy to be at equilibrium.

4. When looking at the circular flow model and the equilibrium condition of leakages equaling injections, what would be the effect on the economy if the following were true:

a. Investment spending = $2 billion

b. Government spending = $8 billion.

c. Taxes = $3 billion.

d. Savings = negative $2 billion

e. Imports = $12 billion

f. Exports = $1 billion

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