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# CAFR Ratios Objectives

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CAFR Ratios
One of the objectives this week is about identifying key performance measures. It boils down to this...once all the numbers are journaled and reported out...what do they mean? You want to understand the financial position (status of your assets/liabilities at a certain point in time) AND your financial condition (are you solvent, do you have resources to accomplish goals, and so on). And then there is the economic condition (high or low unemployment, stable neighborhoods, etc.).

One way to analyze the financial condition of your community is to analyze the numbers on the CAFR. The book gives us 14 ratios offering different perspectives on the financial condition. For the discussion for this last week, you will briefly report out on the financial condition of your community as follows:

Instructions: Using your CAFR, take at least 4 of the following 14 condition indicators and do the following:

1. Name the condition
2. Show the ratio formula, state what it is assessing and then your CAFR data compute the actual ratio
3. Interpret the results.

The 14 conditions you have to choose from are:
1. Revenues per capita
2. One time revenues
3. Expenditures by function
4. Employees per capita
5. Fund balances
6. Liquidity
7. Long-term debt
8. Debt service
9. Pension obligations
10. Interperiod equity
11. BTA self-sufficiency
12. Unrestricted net assets
13.Revenue dispersion
14. Financing margin - property taxes per capita

#### Solution Preview

Step 1
The first condition considered is "expenditure by function". This is shown in the Government-wide Financial Statements of Activities Fiscal Year ended June 30, 2012. The expenses of the Los Angeles Country Office of Education have been broken down function wise. The broad functions are Instruction, Instruction Related Services, and Support Services. Each broad function lists individual functions. For example, Instruction has "Regular Education, Special Education, and Regional Occupational Program ". Each function shows the expenses, revenues, and net expenses. For example, regular education expenses are \$187,601,013, from which revenues are subtracted and net expense of \$23,098,906 is listed. The formula is that all the ...

#### Solution Summary

Key performance measures are discussed step-by-step in this solution. The response also has the sources used.

\$2.19

## Discussing Initial Public Offerings (IPO's)

Initial Public Offering (IPO) is defined as the first sale of stock by a company. Companies like AVG (http://www.avg.com/ca-en/homepage) looking to further their growth often use an IPO as a way to generate the capital needed to expand. AVG is uniquely positioned to spearhead innovation in the industry thanks to its employing of some of the world's leading experts in software development, threat detection, threat prevention, and risk analysis. You can read more by accessing the following information source:

PR Newswire AVG Technology (2012). AVG technology announces filing for proposed initial public offering. Retrieved May, 2012, from http://www.avg.com/ca-en/press-releases-news.ndi-3521 ; http://www.avg.com/ca-en/homepage

Do some reading up on the online IPO process used by Google and Morningstar using the CyberLibrary and internet search engines. This is an un-traditional approach to the IPO, and may or may not be the best approach for the AVG's IPO. Carter, A. (2005). Morningstar follows Google's lead.

Question:
1) What type of IPO should AVG use - a traditional IPO or an online auction? Based on your analysis and findings, what would you recommend to the executives of AVG? Please explain your reasoning in detail.

To answer the above question, please include responses to the following issues together with other issues that you think are important:
- The type of investors AVG is likely to attract
- The lessons learned from Google and Morningstar from their auction IPO's
- Advantages of each type of IPO
- Costs of each type of IPO (e.g., US Securities and Exchange Commission fees, stock brokers' commission, other fees, etc., but how much? Please provide numbers and ratios in the paper.)
- Risks of each type of IPO

2) What do you perceive you have learnt in this Assignment? Which of the following learning objectives do you feel you have mastered?
- Describe the steps a firm must take in order to go public
- Identify success factors for a firm making the IPO decision
- Discuss and analyze the different types of IPOs

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