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How do you measure the output and outcomes? Are performance metrics different from activity metrics?

From your personal perspective, without references, can you explain:

How do you measure the output and outcomes of an organization? If outputs and outcomes were not currently measured, how would one propose to do so? Please focus on the differences between outputs and outcomes.

From your personal perspective, without references, can you explain:

How are performance metrics different from activity metrics?

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Output measures how much or how many. Outcome measures gauge how well the program has accomplished its goal. In organizations, usually, I have seen that output measures are in place and a great emphasis is placed on these. However, outcome measures are usually discussed in board meetings and are often overlooked.
In an organization, output measures include production, sales, services, profits, investor wealth, taxes paid.. the list is endless. In a large number of organizations, there are budgets for each of these, there are targets and the variances from these targets are measured and analyzed. For instance if the productivity falls during a year, it is examined carefully, the causes are determined and measures to rectify it are taken. If the sales target is not achieved, then the causes are examined and corrective measures are taken. If the service provided to the customer is not up to the mark, then the number of complaints received goes up and the department responsible tries to rectify the mistakes and the quality of service improves once again. These are usually the output measures.
In contrast, consider the outcome measures. These pertain to the goals of the organization. The objective in case of a company may be to penetrate a new market and move in it with a 40% presence. At the end of the required period the company would examine if it has been able to reach its goal. We may have a paradoxical situation where the company may be able to meet its financial profit objectives from sales in other markets, ...

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