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# EVA, Computation of Income tax, ROI

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1. The Modern Language Corporation earned \$1.6 million on net assets of \$20 million. The cost of capital is 11.5%. Calculate the net ROI and EVA. (Negative amounts should be indicated by a minus sign. Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter "EVA" answer in millions rounded to 1 decimal place.)

ROI %

EVA \$ million

2. The table below shows a condensed income statement and balance sheet for Androscoggin Copper's Rumford smelting plant (figures in \$ millions). Assume the cost of capital is 9%.
Income Statement for 2013 Assets, December 31, 2013
Revenue \$ 56.66 Net working capital \$ 7.08
Raw materials cost 18.72
Operating cost 21.09 Investment in plant and equipment 69.33
Depreciation 4.50 Less accumulated depreciation 21.01
________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________
Pretax income 12.35 Net plant and equipment 48.32
Tax at 35% 4.32
________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________
Net income \$ 8.03 Total assets \$ 55.40
________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
a. Calculate the plant's EVA. (Enter your answer in millions rounded to 2 decimal places.)
EVA \$ million

b. The table above shows, the plant is carried on Androscoggin's books at \$48.32 million. However, it is a modern design, and could be sold to another copper company for \$95 million. How should this fact change your calculation of EVA? (Negative amount should be indicated by a minus sign. Enter your answer in millions rounded to 2 decimal places.)
EVA \$ million

3. In 2011 Beta Corporation earned gross profits of \$760,000.
a. Suppose that it is financed by a combination of common stock and \$1 million of debt. The interest rate on the debt is 10%, and the corporate tax rate is 35%. How much profit is available for common stockholders after payment of interest and corporate taxes? (Enter your answer in nearest dollars not in millions.)
Profit \$

b. Now suppose that instead of issuing debt Beta is financed by a combination of common stock and \$1 million of preferred stock. The dividend yield on the preferred is 8% and the corporate tax rate is still 35%. How much profit is now available for common stockholders after payment of preferred dividends and corporate taxes? (Enter your answer in nearest dollars not in millions.)
Profit \$

#### Solution Summary

The solution computes EVA, ROI as well as income tax in a different example where company has debt in 1 scenario and preferred stockholders in another to find what income is available for common stockholders. Attached in Word.

\$2.19

## 7 Finance Problems: Rate of return, Residual income, ROI, EVA, R&D, Transfer price

Unit 9 Managerial & Accounting

EXERCISE 12-11. Evaluating Investment Centers with Residual Income [LO 6] Lakeside
Hospital is a division of Superior Healthcare organized as an investment center. In the past year, the hospital reported an after-tax income of \$2,500,000.Total interest expense was \$1,900,000,and the hospitalâ??s tax rate was 35 percent.Hospital assets totaled \$33,000,000, and noninterest-bearing current liabilities were \$10,400,000. Superior has established a required rate of return equal to 17 percent of invested capital.

Required
Calculate the residual income/EVA of Lakeside Hospital.

EXERCISE 12-13. Overinvestment and Underinvestment [LO 5] consider two companies: Quantum Products and Aquafin Products. Senior managers at Quantum Products are evaluated in terms of increases in profit. In fiscal 2011, Quantum Products had a net operating profit after taxes of \$2,500,000 and invested capital of \$25,000,000. In fiscal 2012, the company had net operating profit after taxes of \$3,000,000 and invested capital of \$37,500,000. Senior managers at Aquafin Products are evaluated in terms of ROI. In fiscal 2012, ROI was 16 percent while the cost of capital was only 12 percent.Near the end of fiscal 2012, managers had an opportunity to make an investment that would have yielded a return of 14 percent. However, the senior managers did not support making the investment.

Required
a. Explain why the senior managers at Quantum Products have an incentive to overinvest.
b. Explain why the senior managers at Aquafin Products have an incentive to underinvest

PROBLEM 12-6. Return on Investment, Profit Margin, and Investment Turnover [LO 4]
Consider the following information for HandyCraft Stores for 2011 and 2012.
2011 2012
Total assets \$45,000,000 \$51,300,000
Noninterest-bearing current liabilities 4,000,000 4,500,000
Net income 3,500,000 4,500,000
Interest expense 2,200,000 2,700,000
Sales 60,000,000 87,500,000
Tax rate 40% 40%

Required
a. Compute ROI for both years.
b. Break ROI down into profit margin and investment turnover.
c. Comment on the change in financial performance between 2011 and 2012.

PROBLEM 12-7. ROI and EVA [LO 6] ELN Waste Management has a subsidiary that disposes of hazardous waste and a subsidiary that collects and disposes of residential garbage. Information related to the two subsidiaries follows.
Hazardous Residential
Waste Waste
Total assets \$13,000,000 \$70,000,000
Noninterest-bearing current liabilities 3,000,000 12,000,000
Net income 1,700,000 6,000,000
Interest expense 1,250,000 7,300,000
Required rate of return 12% 14%
Tax rate 40% 40%

Required
a. Calculate ROI for both subsidiaries.
b. Calculate EVA for both subsidiaries.Note that since no adjustments for accounting distortions
are being made, EVA is equivalent to residual income.
c. Which subsidiary has added the most to shareholder value in the last year?
d. Based on the limited information, which subsidiary is the best candidate for expansion?
Explain.

PROBLEM 12-8. EVA [LO 6] Atomic Electronics is considering instituting a plan whereby managers will be evaluated and rewarded based on a measure of economic value added (EVA). Before adopting the plan, management wants you to calculate what EVA will be in 2012 based on financial forecasts for 2012 and prior financial data.
Fiscal Forecast
2012
Total assets \$ 55,000,000
Noninterest-bearing current liabilities 21,000,000
Sales 100,000,000
Net income 5,500,000
Interest expense 1,200,000
Research and development 2,400,000
Tax rate 35%
Cost of capital 14%

Research and development expenditures in 2010 and 2011 were \$1,200,000 and \$2,100,000, respectively. In calculating EVA, prior research and development will be capitalized and amortized assuming a three-year life (i.e., one-third will be expensed in the year incurred, and two-thirds will be capitalized and expensed in the following two years).

Required
a. Explain why it is important to capitalize research and development if managers are to be
rewarded based on EVA.
b. Calculate forecasted EVA for 2012.
c. Will management be likely to support use of EVA as a financial performance measure?

PROBLEM 12-16. (Appendix) Transfer Pricing [LO A1] Montana Woolen Products has two divisions: a Fabric division that manufactures woolen fabrics and a Clothing division that manufactures woolen dresses, coats, shirts, and accessories. All fabric used by the Clothing division is supplied by the Fabric division, which also supplies fabric to outside companies.

Required
a. Suggest a transfer price for the fabric assuming that the Fabric division is operating at only 60 percent of capacity due to a surge in popularity of 'easy-care' fabrics made of polyester and rayon.
b. Suggest a transfer price for fabric assuming that the Fabric division is operating at capacity
due to a revival of consumer interest in natural products and development of lightweight, wrinkle-
resistant woolen fabrics.
c. Explain how your choices in parts a and b are related to the opportunity cost concept

PROBLEM 12-18. Comparing Performance Evaluation Methods [LO 4,5,6] Top management of the Gates Corporation is trying to construct a performance evaluation system to use to evaluate each of its three divisions.This past yearâ??s financial data are as follows:
Division A Division B Division C
Total assets \$530,000 \$10,700,000 \$6,375,000
Noninterest-bearing current liabilities 30,000 1,250,000 600,000
Net income 102,000 1,040,000 780,000
Interest expense 30,000 1,100,000 700,000
Tax rate 40% 40% 40%
Required rate of return 10% 12% 14%

Required
a. How would the divisions be ranked (from best to worst performance) if the evaluation were based on net income?
b. How would the divisions be ranked (from best to worst performance) if the evaluation were based on ROI?
c. How would the divisions be ranked (from best to worst performance) if the evaluation were based on residual income?

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