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# Riverston has a single plantwide overhead account. Actual machine minutes on the NC machine are used to distribute overhead to the two products. There were no beginning inventories of work in process or finished goods. The following table summarizes the planned and actual production data for the year... Calculate the over- or under absorbed overhead for the year. What is the difference between absorption net income and variable costing income given theses new assumptions?

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The Riverston plant produces sheet metal shell casings for electronic equipment for one large customer. The shell casings are manufactured on a computerized, numerically controlled (NC) machine that cuts, drills, and bends the metal to form the shell casings for the electronic equipment. Two different shell casings are produced: CASING 1 and CASING 2.

Riverston has a single plantwide overhead account. Actual machine minutes on the NC machine are used to distribute overhead to the two products. There were no beginning inventories of work in process or finished goods. The following table summarizes the planned and actual production data for the year:

CASING 1 CASING 2
Planned Unit Production 6,500 3,400
Budgeted machine minutes per unit x 6.2 x 9.8
Expected machine minutes 40,300 33,320
Actual units produced 7,200 3,900
Actual volume (machine minutes) 44,640 38,220

The following data summarize the flexible overhead budget:

Fixed Variable (per Minute)
Depreciation \$ 695,000
Indirect labor \$ 0.80
Indirect materials 1.00
Property taxes 28,000
Utilities 55,000 0.90
Other 42,000 0.30
Total \$ 820,000 \$ 3.00

At the end of the year, the following overhead amounts had been incurred:

Actual
Depreciation \$ 695,000
Indirect labor 71,288
Indirect materials 84,860
Property taxes 31,000
Utilities 133,074
Other 68,858
Total \$ 1,084,080

Any over- or underabsorbed overhead is written off to cost of goods sold. The ending finished goods inventory consists of 2,000 units of CASING 1 and 1,000 units of CASING 2, representing 13,400 minutes and 10,300 minutes of actual machine time, respectively.

i. Calculate the overhead absorption rate set at the start of the year. Show calculations step by step.

ii. Calculate the over- or under absorbed overhead for the year. Show calculations step by step.

iii. The firm is considering switching to variable costing. What effect would this decision have on Riverston's reported profit for this year? To implement variable costing at the end of the year, variable overhead is calculated as \$3.00 per machine minute times the actual number of machine minutes. Fixed overhead is the difference between total actual overhead and variable overhead. Show calculations step by step and provide a detailed explanation.

iv. Instead of defining fixed overhead as all overhead in excess of variable overhead as in part (c), assume the following: Fixed overhead is budgeted fixed overhead (\$820,000), and variable overhead is the difference between total actual overhead and budgeted fixed overhead. What is the difference between absorption net income and variable costing income given theses new assumptions? Show calculations step by step and provide a detailed explanation.