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    Allocating Costs / Absorption Costing / Variances

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    12-59 Allocating Costs Using Direct and Step-Down Methods

    Goal: Create an Excel spreadsheet to allocate costs using the direct method and the stepdown method. Use the results to answer questions about your findings.

    Scenario: Antonio Cleaning has asked you to help them determine the best method forallocating costs from their service departments to their producing departments. Additional background information for your spreadsheet appears in Fundamental Assignment Material

    12-B2. Exhibit 12-4 on page 532 illustrates the types of calculations that are used for allocating costs using the direct method and the step-down method.

    When you have completed your spreadsheet, answer the following questions:

    1. What are the total costs for the Residential department using the direct method? What are the total costs for the Commercial department using the direct method?

    2. What are the total costs for the Residential department using the step-down method?

    3. What are the total costs for the Commercial department using the step-down method?

    4. Which method would you recommend that Antonio Cleaning use to allocate their service departments' costs to their producing departments? Why?

    Step-by-Step:

    1. Open a new Excel spreadsheet.

    2. In column A, create a bold-faced heading that contains the following:
    Row 1: Chapter 12 Decision Guideline
    Row 2: Dallas Cleaning
    Row 3: Cost Allocations from Service Departments to Producing Departments
    Row 4: Today's Date

    3. Merge and center the four heading rows across columns A through H.

    4. In row 7, create the following bold-faced, center-justified column headings:
    Column B: Personnel
    Column C: Administrative
    Column D: Residential
    Column E: Commercial
    Column F: Total Res/Comm
    Column G: Total Admin/Res/Comm
    Column H: Grand Total

    5. Change the format of the column headings in row 7 to permit the titles to be displayed on multiple lines within a single cell.
    Alignment tab: Wrap Text: Checked
    Note: Adjust column widths so that headings use only two lines.
    Adjust row height to ensure that row is same height as adjusted headings.

    6. In column A, create the following row headings:
    Row 8: Direct Department Costs
    Row 9: Number of Employees
    Skip 2 rows
    Note: Adjust the width of column A to 27.14.

    7. In column A, create the following bold-faced, underlined row heading:
    Row 12: Direct Method:

    8. In column A, create the following row headings:
    Row 13: Direct Department Costs
    Row 14: Personnel Allocation
    Row 15: Administrative Allocation
    Row 16: Total Costs
    Skip 2 rows

    9. In column A, create the following bold-faced, underlined row heading:
    Row 19: Step-down Method:

    10. In column A, create the following row headings:
    Row 20: Direct Department Costs
    Row 21: Step 1-Personnel Allocation
    Row 22: Step 2-Administrative Allocation
    Row 23: Total Costs

    11. Use data from Fundamental Assignment 12-B2 to enter the amounts in columns B through E for rows 8, 9, 13, and 20.

    12. Use the appropriate calculations to do the totals in row 8 for columns F and H. Use the appropriate calculations to do the totals in row 9 for columns F and G.

    13. Use the appropriate formulas to allocate the costs from the service departments to the producing departments using each of the methods.

    14. Use the appropriate calculations to do the totals in columns B through E and in column H, rows 16 and 23.

    Introduction to Management Accounting: Chapters 1-17, Fourteenth Edition, by Charles T. Horngren, Gary L. Sundem, William O. Stratton, David Burgstahler, and Jeff Schatzberg.

    586 Part 4: Product Costing

    15. Format amounts in columns B through H, rows 8, 13, 16, 20, and 23 as
    Number tab: Category: Accounting
    Decimal: 0
    Symbol: $

    16. Format the amount in columns B through E, rows 14, 15, 21, and 22 as
    Number tab: Category: Accounting
    Decimal: 0
    Symbol: None

    17. Change the format of the total costs amounts in columns B through E, rows 16 and 23, to display a top border, using the default line style.
    Border tab: Icon: Top Border

    18. Change the format of the amounts in row 9, columns B through G to center justified.

    19. Save your work to disk, and print a copy for your files.
    Note: Print your spreadsheet using landscape in order to ensure that all columns appear on one page..

    13-B3 Comparison of Variable Costing and Absorption Costing

    Consider the following information pertaining to a year's operations of Youngstown Manufacturing:
    Units sold 1,400
    Units produced 1,600
    Direct labor $4,200
    Direct materials used 3,500
    Fixed manufacturing overhead 2,200
    Variable manufacturing overhead 300
    Selling and administrative expenses (all fixed) 700
    Beginning inventories 0
    Contribution margin 5,600
    Direct-material inventory, end 800
    There are no work-in-process inventories.

    1. What is the ending finished-goods inventory cost under absorption costing?

    2. What is the ending finished-goods inventory cost under variable costing?

    13-45 Variable and Absorption Costing

    Chan Manufacturing Company data for 20X7 follow:
    Sales: 12,000 units at $17 each
    Actual production 15,000 units
    Expected volume of production 18,000 units
    Manufacturing costs incurred
    Variable $120,000
    Fixed 63,000
    Nonmanufacturing costs incurred
    Variable $ 24,000
    Fixed 18,000

    1. Determine operating income for 20X7, assuming the firm uses the variable-costing approach to product costing. (Do not prepare a statement.)

    2. Assume that there is no January 1, 20X7, inventory; no variances are allocated to inventory; and the firm uses a "full absorption" approach to product costing. Compute (a) the cost assigned to December 31, 20X7, inventory; and (b) operating income for the year ended December 31, 20X7. (Do not prepare a statement.)

    13-48 Overhead Variances

    Study Appendix 13. Consider the following data for the Rivera Company:
    Factory Overhead
    Fixed Variable
    Actual incurred $14,200 $13,300
    Budget for standard hours allowed
    for output achieved 12,500 11,000
    Applied 11,600 11,000
    Budget for actual hours of input 12,500 11,400
    From the above information, fill in the blanks below. Be sure to mark your variances F for favorable
    and U for unfavorable.

    a. Flexible-budget variance $______ Fixed $______
    Variable $______

    b. Production-volume variance $______ Fixed $______
    Variable $______

    c. Spending variance $______ Fixed $______
    Variable $______

    d. Efficiency variance $______ Fixed $______
    Variable $______

    13-49 Variances

    Study Appendix 13. Consider the following data regarding factory overhead:
    Variable Fixed
    Budget for actual hours of input $45,000 $70,000
    Applied 41,000 64,800
    Budget for standard hours allowed for actual output achieved ? ?
    Actual incurred 48,500 68,500
    Using the above data, fill in the following blanks with the variance amounts. Use F for favorable or U for unfavorable for each variance.

    Total Overhead Variable Fixed
    1. Spending variance ______ ______ ______
    2. Efficiency variance ______ ______ ______
    3. Production-volume variance ______ ______ ______
    4. Flexible-budget variance ______ ______ ______
    5. Underapplied overhead ______ ______ ______

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    Solution Summary

    The solution explains some questions relating to cost allocation, absorption and variable costing and calculating variances.

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