12-59 Allocating Costs Using Direct and Step-Down Methods
Goal: Create an Excel spreadsheet to allocate costs using the direct method and the stepdown method. Use the results to answer questions about your findings.
Scenario: Antonio Cleaning has asked you to help them determine the best method forallocating costs from their service departments to their producing departments. Additional background information for your spreadsheet appears in Fundamental Assignment Material
12-B2. Exhibit 12-4 on page 532 illustrates the types of calculations that are used for allocating costs using the direct method and the step-down method.
When you have completed your spreadsheet, answer the following questions:
1. What are the total costs for the Residential department using the direct method? What are the total costs for the Commercial department using the direct method?
2. What are the total costs for the Residential department using the step-down method?
3. What are the total costs for the Commercial department using the step-down method?
4. Which method would you recommend that Antonio Cleaning use to allocate their service departments' costs to their producing departments? Why?
1. Open a new Excel spreadsheet.
2. In column A, create a bold-faced heading that contains the following:
Row 1: Chapter 12 Decision Guideline
Row 2: Dallas Cleaning
Row 3: Cost Allocations from Service Departments to Producing Departments
Row 4: Today's Date
3. Merge and center the four heading rows across columns A through H.
4. In row 7, create the following bold-faced, center-justified column headings:
Column B: Personnel
Column C: Administrative
Column D: Residential
Column E: Commercial
Column F: Total Res/Comm
Column G: Total Admin/Res/Comm
Column H: Grand Total
5. Change the format of the column headings in row 7 to permit the titles to be displayed on multiple lines within a single cell.
Alignment tab: Wrap Text: Checked
Note: Adjust column widths so that headings use only two lines.
Adjust row height to ensure that row is same height as adjusted headings.
6. In column A, create the following row headings:
Row 8: Direct Department Costs
Row 9: Number of Employees
Skip 2 rows
Note: Adjust the width of column A to 27.14.
7. In column A, create the following bold-faced, underlined row heading:
Row 12: Direct Method:
8. In column A, create the following row headings:
Row 13: Direct Department Costs
Row 14: Personnel Allocation
Row 15: Administrative Allocation
Row 16: Total Costs
Skip 2 rows
9. In column A, create the following bold-faced, underlined row heading:
Row 19: Step-down Method:
10. In column A, create the following row headings:
Row 20: Direct Department Costs
Row 21: Step 1-Personnel Allocation
Row 22: Step 2-Administrative Allocation
Row 23: Total Costs
11. Use data from Fundamental Assignment 12-B2 to enter the amounts in columns B through E for rows 8, 9, 13, and 20.
12. Use the appropriate calculations to do the totals in row 8 for columns F and H. Use the appropriate calculations to do the totals in row 9 for columns F and G.
13. Use the appropriate formulas to allocate the costs from the service departments to the producing departments using each of the methods.
14. Use the appropriate calculations to do the totals in columns B through E and in column H, rows 16 and 23.
Introduction to Management Accounting: Chapters 1-17, Fourteenth Edition, by Charles T. Horngren, Gary L. Sundem, William O. Stratton, David Burgstahler, and Jeff Schatzberg.
586 Part 4: Product Costing
15. Format amounts in columns B through H, rows 8, 13, 16, 20, and 23 as
Number tab: Category: Accounting
16. Format the amount in columns B through E, rows 14, 15, 21, and 22 as
Number tab: Category: Accounting
17. Change the format of the total costs amounts in columns B through E, rows 16 and 23, to display a top border, using the default line style.
Border tab: Icon: Top Border
18. Change the format of the amounts in row 9, columns B through G to center justified.
19. Save your work to disk, and print a copy for your files.
Note: Print your spreadsheet using landscape in order to ensure that all columns appear on one page..
13-B3 Comparison of Variable Costing and Absorption Costing
Consider the following information pertaining to a year's operations of Youngstown Manufacturing:
Units sold 1,400
Units produced 1,600
Direct labor $4,200
Direct materials used 3,500
Fixed manufacturing overhead 2,200
Variable manufacturing overhead 300
Selling and administrative expenses (all fixed) 700
Beginning inventories 0
Contribution margin 5,600
Direct-material inventory, end 800
There are no work-in-process inventories.
1. What is the ending finished-goods inventory cost under absorption costing?
2. What is the ending finished-goods inventory cost under variable costing?
13-45 Variable and Absorption Costing
Chan Manufacturing Company data for 20X7 follow:
Sales: 12,000 units at $17 each
Actual production 15,000 units
Expected volume of production 18,000 units
Manufacturing costs incurred
Nonmanufacturing costs incurred
Variable $ 24,000
1. Determine operating income for 20X7, assuming the firm uses the variable-costing approach to product costing. (Do not prepare a statement.)
2. Assume that there is no January 1, 20X7, inventory; no variances are allocated to inventory; and the firm uses a "full absorption" approach to product costing. Compute (a) the cost assigned to December 31, 20X7, inventory; and (b) operating income for the year ended December 31, 20X7. (Do not prepare a statement.)
13-48 Overhead Variances
Study Appendix 13. Consider the following data for the Rivera Company:
Actual incurred $14,200 $13,300
Budget for standard hours allowed
for output achieved 12,500 11,000
Applied 11,600 11,000
Budget for actual hours of input 12,500 11,400
From the above information, fill in the blanks below. Be sure to mark your variances F for favorable
and U for unfavorable.
a. Flexible-budget variance $______ Fixed $______
b. Production-volume variance $______ Fixed $______
c. Spending variance $______ Fixed $______
d. Efficiency variance $______ Fixed $______
Study Appendix 13. Consider the following data regarding factory overhead:
Budget for actual hours of input $45,000 $70,000
Applied 41,000 64,800
Budget for standard hours allowed for actual output achieved ? ?
Actual incurred 48,500 68,500
Using the above data, fill in the following blanks with the variance amounts. Use F for favorable or U for unfavorable for each variance.
Total Overhead Variable Fixed
1. Spending variance ______ ______ ______
2. Efficiency variance ______ ______ ______
3. Production-volume variance ______ ______ ______
4. Flexible-budget variance ______ ______ ______
5. Underapplied overhead ______ ______ ______
The solution explains some questions relating to cost allocation, absorption and variable costing and calculating variances.