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Absorption, variable and throughput costing

Great Outdoze, Inc. manufactures high-quality sleeping bags, which sell for $130 each. The variable
costs of production are as follows:

Direct material ........................................................................................................................................ $40
Direct labor ............................................................................................................................................ 22
Variable manufacturing overhead .............................................................................................................. 16

Budgeted fixed overhead in 20x4 was $400,000 and budgeted production was 25,000 sleeping bags. The year's actual production was 25,000 units, of which 22,000 were sold. Variable selling and administrative costs were $2 per unit sold; fixed selling and administrative costs were $60,000.

Required:
1. Calculate the product cost per sleeping bag under ( a ) absorption costing and ( b ) variable costing.
2. Prepare income statements for the year using ( a ) absorption costing and ( b ) variable costing.
3. Reconcile reported income under the two methods using the shortcut method.
4. Suppose that Great Outdoze, Inc. implemented a JIT inventory and production management system at the beginning of 20x4. In addition, the firm installed a flexible manufacturing system. Would you expect reported income under variable and absorption costing to be different by as great a magnitude as you found in requirement (3)? Explain.

Refer to the information given in the preceding problem for Great Outdoze, Inc. Assume that direct material is the only unit-level manufacturing cost. The company has committed its spending for direct labor and overhead (variable and fixed).

Required:
1. Calculate the product cost per sleeping bag under throughput costing.
2. Prepare an income statement for the year 20x4 using throughput costing.
3. Give an argument for and against throughput costing.

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