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# Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics is the process of summarizing data in both a quantitative and visual manner. In a quantitative sense, typically this involves highlighting the main elements of a collection of data, for example, calculating the mean, median and mode. It is through the construction of figures, such as histograms and pie charts that data can be visually represented. Essentially, the overarching goal with descriptive statistics is to characterize data so that the basic quantitative features can be properly understood.

In descriptive statistics, the method which is utilized to express data depends on the type of data which is being analyzed. Simply put, data can be separated into two general groups: categorical data and numerical data. When dealing with categorical data, the variables which are measured are usually either nominal or ordinal in nature. A nominal variable is one representative of a category, with no associated numerical value. For example, data collected on the different colours of hummingbirds in a sample would represent nominal data. However, ordinal variables do have associated intrinsic values, usually classified as levels or rankings. For example, pretend that in the hummingbird scenario only yellow hummingbirds were measured in terms of the intensity of yellow which they possessed, either being low, medium or high. Therefore, these three levels of intensity would represent ordinal variables.

In comparison to categorical data, numerical data classifies variables as being either continuous or discrete. Discrete variables are whole numbers, whereas, continuous variables can resemble any number within a range.

Descriptive statistics is an integral part to the analysis of data because it allows data to be represented in a visual way, in which patterns and outliers can be identified. The use of descriptive statistics is useful for any study which aims to describe the characteristics of the different measures being collected. Additionally, it is critical to understand that descriptive statistics does not aim to formulate inferences which extend beyond the sample data being studied to the population at large. Rather, it functions to solely evaluate and visualize the immediate data collected.

## Categories within Descriptive Statistics

### Summary Tables

Solutions: 346

Summary tables are a tool used in descriptive statistics to summarize either categorical or numerical variables in a tabular format.

### Statistical Figures

Solutions: 461

Figures are commonly used in statistics to provide a visual representation of data, highlighting the patterns and trends which are present.

### Quantative Analysis of Data

Solutions: 3,118

Quantitative analysis is an overarching term used to classify the various characteristics and measures which are utilized in statistics to discuss the behaviour of a data set.

### Standard Scores and Percentiles

1. Heights of American Men. The heights of American adult men are normally distributed with a mean of 69.7 inches and a standard deviation of 2.7 inches. (Use Table 6.3 on page 390 of your e-text to find the Percentile based on the z-score that you calculate.) a. What are the standard score and percentile of a height of 72 inc

### Descriptive Statistics and Weighted Averages

Descriptive Statistics and Weighted Averages By hand or using Excel, find the mean, median, mode, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, maximum, minimum, and range. (Estimate the percentiles when working problems by hand.) 1. Professor Ivy has the following scores on her final exams: 97 88 66 55 89 72 94 32 84

### PLS-SEM Analyses

Please run the SEM model described in the figure below using the enclosed dataset (npcdata.sav). This time, model it and run it in PLS. To do so, the first step will be to convert the SAV file (SPSS) into a text file. If the version of SmartPLS you have supports up to 100 cases, then pick the first 100 cases in the file. Plea

For this one, please identify 2 variables related to business leadership then find at least 3 scholarly articles that used each of the two variables and fill out the attached table with the information requested. Make sure the articles you select use some type of regression or path analysis or Structural Equation Modeling.

### SEM in AMOS

Run the SEM model described in the figure below using the enclosed dataset (npcdata.sav). In 1999, NPC Research Inc. conducted a school survey of over 2,000 students in Oregon. The survey included questions about drug and alcohol use, and also questions about the student's perceptions of his or her neighborhood. Responses

### SEM

Please reflect on business leadership theory and find (using Web of Science or ProQuest for example) three papers (ideally from top-ranked journals) that used SEM. 1) What are the measured constructs? 2) Why did the authors need to use SEM? 3) Comment on the validity of these constructs using the provided statistics and the

### CFA and SEM, Research Tools, Transformational Leadership

1. Describe how you may use CFA and SEM in business leadership research, and why you may choose to do so. 2. Write your thoughts on the future of transformational leadership. 3. Why is it important to select appropriate research tools for research? Please relate your answer to business leadership. 4. Please explain what the f

Pick a single construct in business leadership as the dependent variable. Identify three scholarly articles (in business leadership - preferably Asian or Japanese leadership) where this specific dependent variable has been used in any form (i.e., as an independent variable, as moderator, or mediator). Make sure the papers

### 3 questions

The SPSS file contains the subscale scores for the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children. The first two columns are subject code and age. The rest include scores on different areas of the exam. Run exploratory factor analysis (principal components, no rotation) on the data. How many meaningful factors will you retain? Inte

Review of: Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creative Process Engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107-128 1) Provide an outline of the paper. List all sections included in the paper. 2

### Exploratory Factor Analysis

Scaling and Exploratory Factor Analysis Select 3 scholarly papers on leadership that used multi-item constructs and exploratory factor analysis. Please cite those three papers in the following questions below: Address the following points in a synthesized set of paragraphs. What are the measured multi-item constructs/

### Basic Statistics Questions on Probability

Section-I State whether the following statements are True or False. 1. Mean of the values 5, 4, 0, 3 is 3. 2. Half of the observations in a data set are greater than the median. 3. The total number of phone calls in a day, is the example of continuous data. 4. One or more outliers do not affect the value of the m

### Solve a set of questions on binomial distribution

2. A jail has an inmate population with a mean number of prior arrests of 6 and a standard deviation of 2. Arrests are distributed normally. a) What is the z-score of inmates with 1, 3, 6, and 7 prior arrests? b) Would a new inmate with nine prior arrests be in the upper 5% of the arrest distribution? c) Would a new inmate w

### Descriptive Statistics and Samples Versus Population

Primary Task: Write a brief paper in APA format of 400-600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas. You are going to look at how wealth might change one's life. Use Crosstabs in SPSS to complete the task: Load

### Emily Smith decides to buy a fuel-efficient used car

Emily Smith decides to buy a fuel-efficient used car. Here are several vehicles she is considering, with the estimated cost to purchase and the age of the vehicle. Vehicle Est. Cost Age Honda insight \$5,555 8 toyota prius \$1

### Perform a hypothesis testing for mean using t distribution

1. Average adult Americans are about one inch taller, but nearly a whopping 25 pounds heavier than they were in 1960, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The bad news, says CDC is that average BMI (body mass index, a weight-for-height formula used to measure obesity) has increased

### Basic number statistics

Hi, Please I want help to answer these questions. Thanks. 1) The students of Hugh Logan's math class took the Scholastic Aptitude Test. Their math scores are shown below. Find the mean score. 552 593 358 352 537 349 357 596 470 482 2) The salaries of ten randomly selected physicians are shown below. Find the median

### Investment Statistics - Value of Information

Scenario: Using the same situation from SLP 3, recall that you are deciding between three investments. You have heard of an Expert who has a "track record" of high confidence in correctly identifying when market conditions are favorable or not. You are now considering whether to consult this "expert" and if it would be worth pay

### Frequency Distribution Scenario for Motivating Buying Habits

Scenario: Your boss has asked you to analyze the ages of your customers to get a better idea of what might motivate their buying habits. Outside research has shown that different age groups buy products for different reasons. And that different age groups buy different kinds of products. Your boss developed a survey that was sen

Excel Grade Book Project Understanding how weighted averages work will be a very important topic for you in this course, since your grades are determined in this way. In this project, you will create an Excel spreadsheet that can calculate a math 123 student's final grade for the course. You will then write a reflection pap

### Solve 15 questions on decision theory

We received a test prep question bank to prepare for our final exam. I need solutions. This is not an assignment. This is a practice test questions.

### Decision Errors: Alpha and Power Relationship

This is the second part of the last work you did help me with,Turning Research Questions into Hypotheses "The higher body height the more frequent heart disease". a. Restate your Research Question and Hypotheses: In Unit 4 you began to study the use of hypothesis testing to answer research questions. Rewrite your research que

### Research questions using hypotheses testing in real life

a. Develop a Research Question: In your area of interest, think about a research question that could be answered using a hypothesis test. Write down this research question and explain what your research is trying to investigate. b. State the Hypotheses: Using your research question, create the null hypothesis that will be tes

### Descriptive Statistics Calculation

Must show all work leading to answers- Can you please show all detailed work leading to the answer? MAT 142 Problem set Unit: Statistics Topic: Organizing and Visualizing Data Directions: Solve the following problems. Please show your work, and explain your reasoning. Consider the set of test scores shown below 88, 8

### Project 3 Google Stock Closing Prices

PROJECT 3 INSTRUCTIONS Based on Larson & Farber: sections 5.2-5.3 Go to this website. First, set the date range to be for exactly 1 year ending with the Monday that this course started. For example, if the current term started on 04/01/2014, then use 04/01/2013 - 03/31/2014. Your dates will going back exactly 1 year. Nex

### Forecasts Calculations

Question 4 A rendering plant wishes to use the data (sales records from a few local businesses and the month of the year) to help determine their supply level for the coming months. The records shown in the table provide an excellent opportunity for you to assist them with their forecasting. Which answer below? Month Sales

### Coefficients for Both Simple and Multiple Regressions

See the attached file. 1. A professor wants to test if the number of sunny days in the week before an exam has an influence on student grades .A sample of 20 is taken and the following regression equation is obtained. Y = 80 - .5X S b1 = .1 a) Test at a=.05 b) Interpret R2 2. Given the following regression

### Graphical & Tabular Descriptive Summaries

Using the attached excel file, identify and discuss what makes a Crusty Pizza Company restaurant successful and conversely unsuccessful. Use the data for the 60 stores in worksheet "Case 1 and 2 data". Use graphical and tabular descriptive statistics. Plan the analysis by using a combination of summaries that best allow you to

### Frequency Distribution with Skewed Data

1. Identify three uses for a frequency distribution. Please provide realistic health related examples. 2. Briefly identify the differences between a normal, positive and negative skew. How does this skew or distribution curve relate to standard error? What does the standard error mean for the results? Feel free to use and exa

### Assumptions, Calculations, and Confidence Interval for Means

Your manager is asking for the average viscosity of a product that you produce in a batch process. Recorded below are the 12 most recent values, taken from consecutive batches. State any assumptions, and clearly show the calculations that are required to estimate a 95% confidence interval for the mean. Interpret that confidence