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# Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics is the process of summarizing data in both a quantitative and visual manner. In a quantitative sense, typically this involves highlighting the main elements of a collection of data, for example, calculating the mean, median and mode. It is through the construction of figures, such as histograms and pie charts that data can be visually represented. Essentially, the overarching goal with descriptive statistics is to characterize data so that the basic quantitative features can be properly understood.

In descriptive statistics, the method which is utilized to express data depends on the type of data which is being analyzed. Simply put, data can be separated into two general groups: categorical data and numerical data. When dealing with categorical data, the variables which are measured are usually either nominal or ordinal in nature. A nominal variable is one representative of a category, with no associated numerical value. For example, data collected on the different colours of hummingbirds in a sample would represent nominal data. However, ordinal variables do have associated intrinsic values, usually classified as levels or rankings. For example, pretend that in the hummingbird scenario only yellow hummingbirds were measured in terms of the intensity of yellow which they possessed, either being low, medium or high. Therefore, these three levels of intensity would represent ordinal variables.

In comparison to categorical data, numerical data classifies variables as being either continuous or discrete. Discrete variables are whole numbers, whereas, continuous variables can resemble any number within a range.

Descriptive statistics is an integral part to the analysis of data because it allows data to be represented in a visual way, in which patterns and outliers can be identified. The use of descriptive statistics is useful for any study which aims to describe the characteristics of the different measures being collected. Additionally, it is critical to understand that descriptive statistics does not aim to formulate inferences which extend beyond the sample data being studied to the population at large. Rather, it functions to solely evaluate and visualize the immediate data collected.

## BrainMass Categories within Descriptive Statistics

### Summary Tables

Solutions: 355

Summary tables are a tool used in descriptive statistics to summarize either categorical or numerical variables in a tabular format.

### Statistical Figures

Solutions: 461

Figures are commonly used in statistics to provide a visual representation of data, highlighting the patterns and trends which are present.

### Quantative Analysis of Data

Solutions: 3,124

Quantitative analysis is an overarching term used to classify the various characteristics and measures which are utilized in statistics to discuss the behaviour of a data set.

### Comparing the Performance: Standard Deviation

A company is reviewing the performance of two different suppliers of toner ink as their intention is to compare them and possibly switch to the alternate one. Using the following data for hours of toner use before empty answer the following. CURRENT SUPPLIER A ALTERNATE SUPPLIER B Mean 501.7 495.3 Variance 102.3 20.1 Obse

### Probability for Student Locations

The student body of a local college draws 40% of its students from Ontario, 35% from the rest of Canada, and the remainder from outside Canada. Of those from Ontario, 60% are female, of those from the rest of Canada 25% are female, and of those from outside Canada, 15% are female. a. What is the probability of a male student

### Probability of Faxed and Online Orders

A company receives 20 faxed orders every two hours. What is the probability that it will receive 8 orders in the next hour? What is the probability that more than 12 minutes will elapse between faxed orders? The company also receives online orders. These orders are over \$200 on average 15% of the time. What is the probabili

### Consider a sample of nine wait times measured in seconds at a drive through coffee shop.

Consider a sample of nine wait times measured in seconds at a drive through coffee shop. The sample mean is 95 and the sample standard deviation is 23.516. The population mean and standard deviation are 100 and 20 respectively. What is the size of the sampling error in this case? What is the probability that the average w

### Types of Data and Sampling

Present two different types of data, or variables, used in the health field. Examples could be blood pressure, temperature, pH, pain rating scales, pulse oximetry, % hematocrit, minute respiration, gender, age, ethnicity, etc. Classify each of your variables as qualitative or quantitative and explain why they fall into the ca

### Confidence interval when standard deviation is unknown

You randomly select 16 coffee shops and measure the temperature of the coffee sold at each. The sample mean temperature is 162.0 F with a sample standard deviation of 10 F. Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean temperature. Assume the temperatures are approximately normally distributed.

### Standard Scores and Percentiles

1. Heights of American Men. The heights of American adult men are normally distributed with a mean of 69.7 inches and a standard deviation of 2.7 inches. (Use Table 6.3 on page 390 of your e-text to find the Percentile based on the z-score that you calculate.) a. What are the standard score and percentile of a height of 72 inc

### Perform a paired t-test in SPSS

Research Scenario: A developmental psychologist is studying whether attachment can be improved upon by providing a parent training course. He has 10 parents who are seeking services to improve their children's attachment to them. He uses a measure of which higher scores indicate more secure attachments to caregivers and gave it

### Regression analysis in SPSS and Relationship between Variables

A counselor wants to study the relationship between the use of social media and the number of friends one talks to on a daily basis face-to-face. He collects scores from a sample of 15 patients on two measures: one is a self-report use of social media on which higher scores indicate more use of social media (possible range of sc

### Descriptive Statistics and Weighted Averages

Descriptive Statistics and Weighted Averages By hand or using Excel, find the mean, median, mode, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, maximum, minimum, and range. (Estimate the percentiles when working problems by hand.) 1. Professor Ivy has the following scores on her final exams: 97 88 66 55 89 72 94 32 84

### PLS-SEM Analyses

Please run the SEM model described in the figure below using the enclosed dataset (npcdata.sav). This time, model it and run it in PLS. To do so, the first step will be to convert the SAV file (SPSS) into a text file. If the version of SmartPLS you have supports up to 100 cases, then pick the first 100 cases in the file. Plea

For this one, please identify 2 variables related to business leadership then find at least 3 scholarly articles that used each of the two variables and fill out the attached table with the information requested. Make sure the articles you select use some type of regression or path analysis or Structural Equation Modeling.

### SEM in AMOS

Run the SEM model described in the figure below using the enclosed dataset (npcdata.sav). In 1999, NPC Research Inc. conducted a school survey of over 2,000 students in Oregon. The survey included questions about drug and alcohol use, and also questions about the student's perceptions of his or her neighborhood. Responses

### SEM

Please reflect on business leadership theory and find (using Web of Science or ProQuest for example) three papers (ideally from top-ranked journals) that used SEM. 1) What are the measured constructs? 2) Why did the authors need to use SEM? 3) Comment on the validity of these constructs using the provided statistics and the

### CFA and SEM, Research Tools, Transformational Leadership

1. Describe how you may use CFA and SEM in business leadership research, and why you may choose to do so. 2. Write your thoughts on the future of transformational leadership. 3. Why is it important to select appropriate research tools for research? Please relate your answer to business leadership. 4. Please explain what the f

Pick a single construct in business leadership as the dependent variable. Identify three scholarly articles (in business leadership - preferably Asian or Japanese leadership) where this specific dependent variable has been used in any form (i.e., as an independent variable, as moderator, or mediator). Make sure the papers

### 3 questions

The SPSS file contains the subscale scores for the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children. The first two columns are subject code and age. The rest include scores on different areas of the exam. Run exploratory factor analysis (principal components, no rotation) on the data. How many meaningful factors will you retain? Inte

Review of: Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creative Process Engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107-128 1) Provide an outline of the paper. List all sections included in the paper. 2

### Exploratory Factor Analysis

Scaling and Exploratory Factor Analysis Select 3 scholarly papers on leadership that used multi-item constructs and exploratory factor analysis. Please cite those three papers in the following questions below: Address the following points in a synthesized set of paragraphs. What are the measured multi-item constructs/

### Basic Statistics Questions on Probability

Section-I State whether the following statements are True or False. 1. Mean of the values 5, 4, 0, 3 is 3. 2. Half of the observations in a data set are greater than the median. 3. The total number of phone calls in a day, is the example of continuous data. 4. One or more outliers do not affect the value of the m

### Statistical Height Analysis

To answer this question you will need the set of height data. Ensure that you explain throughout how you have conducted calculations and have analysed the data. a. i. Identify and delete any unreasonable data. ii. Use spreadsheet software to plot a frequency chart and to calculate the mean and standard deviation from

### Pallets and Insurance Claims: Confidence Intervals

Refer to the Excel file Pallet (attached to the assignment) to address all the questions below: The file contains the weight in pounds from a sample of 368 pallets of Boston shingles and 330 pallets of Vermont shingles. 1.For the Boston shingles, construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean weight. 2.For the Vermont shi

### Solve a set of questions on binomial distribution

2. A jail has an inmate population with a mean number of prior arrests of 6 and a standard deviation of 2. Arrests are distributed normally. a) What is the z-score of inmates with 1, 3, 6, and 7 prior arrests? b) Would a new inmate with nine prior arrests be in the upper 5% of the arrest distribution? c) Would a new inmate w

### Descriptive Statistics and Samples Versus Population

Primary Task: Write a brief paper in APA format of 400-600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas. You are going to look at how wealth might change one's life. Use Crosstabs in SPSS to complete the task: Load

### Emily Smith decides to buy a fuel-efficient used car

Emily Smith decides to buy a fuel-efficient used car. Here are several vehicles she is considering, with the estimated cost to purchase and the age of the vehicle. Vehicle Est. Cost Age Honda insight \$5,555 8 toyota prius \$1

### Perform a hypothesis testing for mean using t distribution

1. Average adult Americans are about one inch taller, but nearly a whopping 25 pounds heavier than they were in 1960, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The bad news, says CDC is that average BMI (body mass index, a weight-for-height formula used to measure obesity) has increased

### Basic number statistics

Hi, Please I want help to answer these questions. Thanks. 1) The students of Hugh Logan's math class took the Scholastic Aptitude Test. Their math scores are shown below. Find the mean score. 552 593 358 352 537 349 357 596 470 482 2) The salaries of ten randomly selected physicians are shown below. Find the median

### Investment Statistics - Value of Information

Scenario: Using the same situation from SLP 3, recall that you are deciding between three investments. You have heard of an Expert who has a "track record" of high confidence in correctly identifying when market conditions are favorable or not. You are now considering whether to consult this "expert" and if it would be worth pay

### Frequency Distribution Scenario for Motivating Buying Habits

Scenario: Your boss has asked you to analyze the ages of your customers to get a better idea of what might motivate their buying habits. Outside research has shown that different age groups buy products for different reasons. And that different age groups buy different kinds of products. Your boss developed a survey that was sen