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Self in a social world

My course book is:

Social Psychology
7th Edition
David G. Myers

Social Psychology: The self in a social world (chapter 1 & 2)

Please provide the best answer only because I can look up the answers in my text:

1. People act differently in similar situations because they differ in how they think about the situations. This statement points to:
____a. the power of the situation.
____b. the importance of cognition.
_x__c. the power of the person.
____d. common sense psychology.

2. Many of the most influential thinkers in the field of personality psychology:
____a. dealt mostly with evolution theory.
____b. were born in Canada.
__x_c. worked and lived in the first two-thirds of the 20th century.
____d. were women.

3. Which one of the following best summarizes the relationship among different levels of explanation?
____a. They compete with each other.
____b. They cancel each other out.
____c. The higher-level explanations replace the lower-level explanations.
__x_d. They can complement each other.

4. A study conducted in 1951 that used films from a Princeton-Dartmouth football game demonstrated that:
____a. fans of Princeton felt that Dartmouth had the better team.
_x__b. fans of Princeton saw their players as victims of more illegal aggressions than the Dartmouth fans.
____c. fans of Princeton saw Dartmouth players as being less aggressive than the Princeton players.
____d. aggression ins not as likely among Ivy League football teams as it is among teams from other conferences.

5. Amy reads a research report and feels that it didn't tell her anything she didn't already know. However, when asked to guest the results of another experiment before reading it, she cannot. Amy's experience illustrates the _____ bias.
_x__a. hindsight
____b. foresight
____c. correlational
____d. correspondence

6. Which one of the following problems is the hindsight bias, which is also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon, most likely to create for psychology students?
____a. Students think that they do not know the results of the experiments in the textbook and study too much for exams.
____b. Students think that they know the results of the experiments in the textbook and study just the right amount for an exam.
__x_c. Students think that the results of the experiments in the textbook are obvious and study too little for an exam.
____d. Students carry out projects to help themselves learn the material.

7. In social science, hypotheses:
x___a. allow a social scientist to test a theory.
____b. enable a social scientist to make predictions but not test a theory.
____c. provide little direction for research.
____d. are to impractical to be of value in the "real world."

8. Correlational research is very good for exploring the:
__x_a. cause and effect relationship between variables.
____b. differences between two individuals.
____c. differences between three or more groups of people.
____d. strength of a relationship between two variables.

9. When a social psychologist conducts an experiment, she typically:
____a. goes into the "real world" and simply observes what happens on a day-to-day basis.
____b. explores the strength of relationships between two variables.
__x_c. manipulates certain variables to determine if they have an effect on some other variable.
____d. avoids using random assignment for fear that doing so will bias her experiment.

10. Dr. Jones, a social psychologist, fears that he will unconsciously tip off his subjects when he provides an overview of the experiment in which they are participants. The best way to avoid doing so is to:
____a. avoid experimental realism in the activity.
____b. use computerized, written instructions rather than read instructions aloud.
_x__c. tell the subjects exactly what to expect.
____d. avoid seeking informed consent from the subjects.

11. "Each of us is the main character in our own story, the star of our own movie." In social psychology, this statement would best illustrate the:
____a. self-efficacy effect.
____b. fundamental attribution bias.
_x__c. self-reference effect.
____d. correspondence effect.

12. Little Billy wants to grow up and be just like his father while Little Betsy wants to grow up and be totally different than her mother. Little Billy and Little Betsy illustrate the power of:
____a. complex self-schemas.
____b. high self-esteem
___c. early childhood trauma.
__x__d. possible selves

13. In collectivist cultures, people tend to:
____a. be more critical of the group than of themselves.
_x__b. have less need for positive self-regard.
____c. understand themselves as individuals more than as members of a group.
____d. be more likely to set goals for themselves.

14. A person with a strong feeling of self-efficacy will:
_x__a. be more persistent in completing a task.
____b. more anxious in completing a task.
____c. experience depression more often.
____d. set mundane goals for himself.

15. Martin Seligman, who first became famous for his research on learned helplessness, found that dogs who are penned up with no possibility of escape and forced to endure electric shocks:
____a. become vicious.
____b. readily escape the pen when given the opportunity.
_x__c. grow passive and fail to escape the pen when given the opportunity later.
____d. have nothing in common with human beings who are placed in conditions of pain with no possibility of escape, because human beings are smarter.

16. Frank is one of those guys who goes on and on about what he thinks about the state of the world. Whether he is at a party with friends or on a plane with a stranger, he shares his views with others. Frank also has a tremendous need to be accepted. Apparently Frank ____ and falls victim to what social psychologists call the ____.
____a. believes that few people agree with him on important issues; conformity effect.
_x__b. overestimates the extent to which others agree with his opinions; false consensus effect.
___c. believes that others will be more likely to accept him if he shares his views with them; similarity effect.
____d. assumes that if he talks a lot about his opinions that others will eventually walk away; fear of intimacy.

17. A false uniqueness effect occurs when:
____a. we do not think as highly of ourselves as we should.
____b. we ascribe more negative traits to ourselves than positive traits.
_x _c. we see our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unsual.
____d. we see our failings as unusual and our virtues as more commonplace than they are.

18. If I tend to be very conscious of how I am being viewed by others in a social situation, social psychology has demonstrated that I will also:
____a. be absent minded.
____b. easily get lost while traveling
____c. seek ways to stand out in the social situation.
_x__d. adjust my behavior to the social situation.

19. Allison seems to be very unconcerned with what other people think of her. She dresses however she pleases and does whatever she pleases no matter where she is and with no regard to her companions. Social psychologists would rate Allison as:
_x__a. low in self-monitoring.
____b. low in self-esteem.
____c. high in self-efficacy.
____d. high in self-monitoring

20. According to social psychologists, as compared to Americans, the Japanese tend to:
____a. exhibit more self-serving bias.
_x__b. exhibit less self-serving bias.
____c. display a sunny disposition and a lot of optimism.
____d. blame their personal economic failures on governmental regulation and bureaucracy.

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