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    Reliability, Validity, and Levels of Measurement

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    Review and consider the constructs of reliability and validity as they apply to research in the behavioural sciences. Describe, with examples from a counselling context, at least two subtypes for each construct (e.g., test-retest reliability; inter-rater reliability; face validity; and construct validity).
    Apply the four levels of measurement to your examples. Why is it important to discern the level of measurement of your data before you select a statistical design?

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    Solution Preview

    Reliability = the extent to which a test is consistent in its evaluation of the same individual (we look at data over time). Essentially, reliability is a measure of consistency (how consistent a test is).
    - Subtypes:
    + Test-retest = determination of reliability by repeatedly administering a test to the same people. For example, if I want to find out if someone's level of intelligence, I would give them an intelligence test (one of the Weschler scales, for example), and then give them the same test at a later date. If the intelligence test has test-retest reliability, the individual's score should be approximately the same both times.
    + Split-half = determination of reliability by dividing the test into two subtests, and then comparing the scores on each half.
    + Inter-rater reliability = degree of agreement among judges. For example, if you were observing a ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution will address reliability and validity, and their various subtypes, as well as the four levels of measurement, and how these apply to counseling.