Compare and contrast ratio and interval schedules in terms of how these contingencies of reinforcement are set up and the effects they have on the instrumental response.
Compare and contrast S-O and R-O associations (including research used to investigate them).
Ratio schedule is set up on the basis of number of responses whereas interval schedule is set up on ...
Ratio schedule is set up on the basis of number of responses whereas interval schedule is set up on the basis of time interval used to execute a particular response.
Higher rates of instrumental response occur in case of ratio schedules as compared to interval schedules. Ratio schedules are unable to maintain responding at low rates of reinforcement (ratio "strain").