Explore BrainMass
Share

# Temperature

The temperature of a body is a quantity which indicates how hot or how old the body is. It is a measure of the thermal energy per particle of matter or radiation. It is measured by a thermometer which can be calibrated in various temperature scales.

Temperature is an intensive property. This means it is independent of the amount of material present. It is equal to a differential coefficient of one extensive variable with respect to another for a given body. This is in contrast to energy which is an extensive property where there is a proportional amount of material in the system.

The lowest theoretical temperature is called absolute zero. However, it cannot be achieved in any actual physical device. This temperature is denoted by 0 Kelvin on the Kelvin scale. At this temperature, there are minimal motions of microscopic constituents.

Temperature is important in all fields of natural science. These fields include physics, geology, chemistry, atmospheric science and biology.

## Categories within Temperature

### Estimate mathematical relationship between the temperature and time for step Change Response Of Bare Thermocouple

The curve on the attached document shows the response of a bare thermocouple which has been subjected to a step change in temperature from 50 degrees celcius to 10 degrees celcius. Assuming that the bare thermocouple behaves as a single transfer lag system, determine the mathematical relationship between the temperature (T) and

### Microorganisms: water, temperature, pH, and light

Describe the importance of water, pH, temperature, light, and atmospheric gasses to the growth of microorganisms. Microbes need the chemical requirement in order for them to grow properly (1). Microbes are composed of carbon, which make up about halve of their dry weight. They can obtain carbon from the environment or from ca

### Calculating the energy required to change temperatures

1. How much energy (In kcal) is required to raise the temperature of 1 L of water from 20 to 100C, and then turn it to steam at 100C? 2. A 2 kg rod of aluminum (c = 0.9 kJ/kg-C) at 90C is dropped into 10 L of water at 10C. What is the final temperature of the mixture? 3. A 0.2 kg block of an unknown metal at 50C is immers

### Changes in Temperature

A cup of coffee has a temperature of 200 degrees Fahrenheit and is placed in a room of constant temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature T of the soup t minutes after it is placed in the room is given by T(t)=70+130e^-0.075t Find the temperature of the coffee after 10 minutes.

### Fermi Function versus Energy

Sketch, using either Matlab or Excel on the same axes, the energy/probability distribution curve for n-type silicon at two temperatures T1 and T2 (where T2 > T1) to show the effect of temperature upon the position of the Fermi level. (Hint: where would the Fermi level be if all the silicon atoms contributed a hole-electron pair?

### Polar Coordinate

** Please see the attached file for the complete problem description ** Solve the following boundary value problem (See the attached file). This problem serves to the description of heat flow in a thin insulated wire whose ends are kept at a constant temperature of 0 C and whose initial temperature distribution is given by

### Calculate change in temperature of hydrogen in a reaction

Given that: H_2 (g)+ F_2 (g) => 2HF(g) change in degrees H_rxn = -546.6 kJ mol^(-1) 2H_2 (g)+O_2 (g) => 2H_2 O(l) change in degrees H_rxn= -571.6 kJ mol^(-1) Calculate the value of => H_rxn for: 2F_2 (g)+2H_2 O(l) => 4HF(g)+ O_2 (g) change in degrees H_rxn = _______________

### Combustion and Final Temperature

If the heat from burning 6.800 g of C_6 H_6 2C_6 H_y (l)+15O_2 (g)?12CO_2 (g)+6H_2 O(l)+6542 kJ is added to 5691 g of water at 21 °C, what is the final temperature of the water?

### Kinetic energy in relation to temperature

Can someone please describe the kinetic energy of an air molecule at -273 °C. I understand the kinetic theory that all matter is made up of moving molecules however, at -273 C, does matter just stop? Thank you!

### Air Temperature, Pressure, & Density Related to Cloud Formation

How would I be able to briefly explain how air temperature, pressure, and density are related to cloud formation?

### Rate of Heat Transfer for an Engine

The thermal characteristics of an engine are being monitored on a dynamometer. Analysis of the coolant water shows that after 30 minutes the engine has lost 36MJ of heat energy. The area of active heat transfer for the coolant side of the engine is 0.84m^2, the coolant temperature in the cylinder head is 102?C and the cylinder h

### Brass plate has a diameter of 1.200 cm at 20oC.

A bolt hole in a brass plate has a diameter of 1.200 cm at 20oC. What is the diameter of the hole when the plate is heated to 220 oC? (The coefficient of linear thermal expansion for brass is 19 ? 10^-6 /oC.)

### Laser Eye Surgery Pulses

Laser eye surgery is carried out by delivering highly intense bursts of energy using electromagnetic waves. A typical laser used in such surgery has a wavelength of 190nm (ultraviolet light) and produces bursts of light that last for 1 ms. It delivers an energy of 0.5 mJ to a circular spot on the cornea with a diameter of 1 mm.

### Estimated Regression Equation for Estimation and Prediction

Data on x = temperature rating (F°) and y = price (\$) for 11 sleeping bags manufactured by Bergans of Norway provided the estimated regression equation ÿ = 359.2668 - 5.2772x. For these data s = 37.9372. Model Rating Price Ranger 3-Seasons 12

### Calculating the balanced temperature after heat transfer

Hello, I'm having difficulty figuring out how to work out a rather simple physics problem and would appreciate some guidance. The problem is as follows: A bottle containing 5.7kg of water at a temperature of 27.3 degrees Celsius is placed in a refrigerator kept at 2.9 degrees Celsius. How much heat is transferred from the wat

### Assume that the atmosphere absorbs 100% of the terrestrial (IR) radiation and has a transmissivity of 100% to solar radiation. Also assume that there is 240 W/m^2 of sunlight incident at the top of the atmosphere. Compute the temperature of the atmosphere (Ta) and surface (Ts).

Assume that the atmosphere absorbs 100% of the terrestrial (IR) radiation and has a transmissivity of 100% to solar radiation. Also assume that there is 240 W/m^2 of sunlight incident at the top of the atmosphere. Compute the temperature of the atmosphere (Ta) and surface (Ts). Please show all the work.

### Physics: Change in size of aluminum plate at different temperatures

An aluminum plate is cut to a width of 1.000 m when the temperature in the cutting bay is 100^0 F. It is held until the winter and put into place when the temperature is -20^0 F. How much smaller is the bar at this time?

### Thermometer Mercury Column

The length of a mercury column in a particular mercury-in-glass thermometer is 10.00 cm when the column is in thermal contact with H20 at its triple point.Consider the length of the column as the thermometric parameter X and let y be the temperature determined by this thermometer. Could you please explain how to calculate the

### Thermal Expansion of a Gas

There is a small amount of water at the bottom of a sealed container of volume 6.9 liters which is otherwise full of an ideal gas. A thin tube open to the atmosphere extends down into the water, and up to a height of 152 cm. The system is initially a pressure that maintains a column of water that just reaches the top of the tube

### Plotting Temperature, Longitude and Latitude

Please find the complete problem description in the attached file. a=-12 degrees celcious φ is latitude in radians (which should vary from the North to the South pole), b1=40oC, z is the height above sea level (which should vary from the surface to 22km), zT is the approximate tropopause height (you may assume that this is

### Thermodynamics Questions: Problems on Heat Exchange

See attached file for graphs. 1. Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide. If you have 1.8 kg of dry ice, what volume will it occupy if you heat it enough to turn it into a gas at a temperature of 20°C? 2. How much work is done on the gas in the process shown in the figure? 3. If a person has a dangerously high fever, submerg

### Flow Charts from Pseudo-code and Algorithms

How would I convert these into flow charts? Temperature Conversion: "Allow the user to enter a series of temperatures in degrees Celsius (C) terminated by the input of -999. For each one, find the corresponding temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F). The conversion formula is: F = 9 * C/5 + 32 ". Factorial: "Find the fact

### Height at which clouds form considering air temperature, humidity at the surface

On a spring day in the midwestern United States, the air temperature at the surface is 28.0 degrees celsius. Puffy cumulus clouds form at an altitude where the air temperature equals the dew point. Part A If the air temperature decreases with altitude at a rate of 0.6 degrees celsius/100 m, at approximately what height abo

### Aluminum bullet's temperature change in Celsius

A 0.039 kg aluminum bullet traveling at 420 m/s strikes an armor plate and comes to a stop. If all its energy is converted to heat that is absorbed by the bullet, what is the bullet's temperature change in degrees Celsius?

### Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Mass of Oxygen Gas Problem

Photoelectron spectroscopy is typically performed in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 1.00 x 10^-7 torr at 25 degrees C. If the moles of gas that are present in this vacuum chamber are due to air, what mass of oxygen gas is still in the chamber? The mole fractions of nitrogen and oxygen gas in air are 0.78084 and 0.20942, res

### Thermal Expansion: Aluminum

To what temperature would a constrained rod of aluminum with a diameter of 50mm need to be heated, if it is expected to exert a force of 200KN? Take the initial temperature to be 20Degrees C, and the young's modulus as 70GPa.

### Finding Force and Volume: Example Questions

1. A research sub dives to a depth of 6 miles beneath the surface of the ocean. Determine the force exerted by the water on a window of radius 30 cm. r_saltwater = 1030 kg/m 2. What volume of air at atmospheric pressure is required to fill a 20 liter truck tire to a pressure of 3.0 atm.? Assume constant temperature.

### Physics Stress Magnitude in 1025 steel bar due to linear thermal expansion in the bar unconstrained and constrained

1) (a) If a rod of 1025 steel 19.7 in. long is heated from 68 to 176ï?°F while its ends remain fixed, determine the type and magnitude of stress that develops. Assume that at 68ï?°F the rod is stress free. (b) What will be the stress magnitude if a rod 39.4 in. long is used? (c) If the rod in part (a) is cooled from 68 to 14

### Interactive C++ program to read in temperatures

Write an interactive C++ program whose input is a series of 12 temperatures from the user. It should write out on file "tempdate.dat" each temperature as well as the differences between the current temperature and the one preceding it, and the average of input temperatures. Since there is no preceding temperature for the fir

### Statistics

1. An experimenter is studying the effects of temperature, pressure, and type of catalyst on yield from a certain chemical reaction. Three different temperatures, four different pressures, and five different catalysts are under consideration. a. If any particular experimental run involves the use of a single temperature, pre