1) Polymers, like rubber, are made of very long molecules, usually tangled up. Another very crude model of a rubber band is that each link is either crumbled up or stretched. If it is crumbled up, its length is negligible and it is in the lowest energy state, call it E = 0. If it is stretched, then its length is L and it is in its high energy state of E = Eo. Consider a rubber band made of N links. The total length, Ltot, of the rubber band is the net displacement from the beginning of the first link to the end of the last link.
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