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Scientific Groups Disagree About Neanderthals' Ability to Speak

The following T/F statements refer to this news report:

Scientific Groups Disagree About Neanderthals' Ability to Speak

Recent reports indicating that Neanderthals were able to speak were wrong, researchers say. Scientists from Duke University reported in May that a bony canal in the skulls of Neanderthals called the hypoglossal canal?which carries the nerve complex required for speech?is as large as that in modern humans, indicating a capacity for speech.

But a UC Berkeley team reported in Tuesday's proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that the hypoglossal canals of many primates?which do not speak?are as large as those of humans. They conclude that the size of the hypoglossal canal is not necessarily related to the ability to speak.

16. The Duke team concludes, by modus tollens reasoning, that Neanderthals could speak.

17. The Duke team believes that the size of Neanderthals' hypoglossal canals is a sufficient condition for their ability to speak.

18. The Berkeley team refutes the Duke team's reasoning by showing, by analogy, that Neanderthals' hypoglossal canals are not large enough for their ability to speak.

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The following are the answers to your sample questions:

16. False. It is Modus Ponens reasoning made on a questionable premise.

17. From the wording of this ...