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Logic questions

Give a critical evaluation of each of the following passages
9. If voluntary school prayer for our children is going to make them more moral, then just think what mandatory church attendance on Sunday could do for the rest of us." (Roderick M. Boyes)

10. If the aquifer is developed by the land owners, several endangered species will become extinct. Thus if these species are to be saved from extinction, the aquifer must not be developed.

11. I tasted a pineapple guava at Melissa's party, and it tasted bitter. I tasted a pineapple guava at Melinda's party, and it also tasted bitter. Mary had pineapple guavas at her Christmas party, and I tasted one. It tasted bitter. Melissa, Melinda and Mary all told me they always got their pineapple guavas from HEB, and Michael who is having a party just bought some pineapple guavas from HEB, so I'll bet they will be bitter, too.

12. "There is a correlation between the use of disposable diapers and the shortage of space in sanitary landfills. As the number of disposable diapers increased, the shortage of space in the landfills became more acute. In periods when fewer disposable diapers were used, the shortage of space in the landfills was less acute. This suggests that the use of disposable diapers is at least a partial cause of shortage of space in landfills." (Daniel E. Flage, Logic, 1995)

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9. This type of argumentation is related to the "kal v'chomer," a type of argumentation known in the Jewish world. It stands for "light and heavy." It was developed about 2000 years ago by Pharisaic rabbis. It goes like this: if x is true of y, then x is even more true of z, so long as z > y. However, here we are not comparing x and x -- we're comparing ...