Thus, the most probable structure is ethyl benzene, shown in the attached document. This solution provides a prediction on what the unknown chemical compound may be, due to the H-spectra and C-13 spectra information given.
The addition of ethyl groups to the central aromatic ring will increase the electron-donating ability of the aromatic ring as ethyl groups are electron-donating in nature.
If the three ester groups just mentioned above all connect to a central carbon with 1 hydrogen attached to it (CH), we've solved the problem, because that lone H wouldn't be split by anything as its isolated in the structure.
As soon as the reaction has started, salt is added to the ice in the cooling bath in order to get more effective cooling.
Activating groups have a net electron-donating effect to the ring. 2. A substituent is said to be deactivating if its presence leads to an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that is slower than that of unsubstituted benzene.
Evidence for the enhanced thermodynamic stability of benzene was obtained from measurements of the heat released when double bonds in a six-carbon ring are hydrogenated (hydrogen is added catalytically) to give cyclohexane as a common product.
That means, there must be an ethyl group (-CH2CH3) in the structure somewhere.
When HCl is added to sodium benzoate it is converted back to benzoic acid, which is largely insoluble in water due to the dominance of the non-polar benzene ring. Part E. Puzzles 1.
Now, if you draw an ethyl group at the second carbon you will see that the longest chain (in order to minimize the size of the side chains, the second IUPAC rule for saturated hydrocarbons) now becomes six carbons long and therefore the molecule is actually
Ortho-xylene, therefore, is composed of a benzene ring with methyl groups on positions 1 and 2 of the ring. In other words, the two methyl groups are side by side. Therefore, when you add one nitrate group, NO2, two possible isomers can form.