How did Christianity spread in the new Lain Christendom and what tools were used by rulers and church officials to spread Christianity?
The fall of the western Roman empire meant that, generally speaking, the papacy took the former prerogatives of the emperors. This did not become important, really, until after the schism with the east in 1054. Pope St. Gregory I made it clear to St. Augustine of Canterbury that pagan practices, if they do not contradict church teachings, can remain left alone. Paganism could often take the form of resistance against the reconstitution of Roman power under Charlemagne (died 814). We have to take Charlemagne into account. The problem with him is that he spread Christianity with the sword. This is because he had no real distinction between the church and empire. To him (as the later German emperors) they were one and the same entity.
Christianity spread at first to the Greek speaking areas of the west, including southern Italy and the Mediterranean coast. Later, via the Anglo-Saxons and the Irish, it finally penetrated the forests of northern Europe. This took a long time, and there was some resistance. The "new" Roman empire was going to be a Catholic one.
You must mention the role of the monasteries. Here, there are two elements:
1. The Irish, whose religious establishment was monastic rather than episcopal. They evangelized parts of Northern Europe.
2. The Benedictines, who carved civilization out of the North.
In both cases, the ...
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