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Landscapes Influenced by Immigrant Communities

Describe landscapes influenced by an immigrant community. Identify the components of the landscape in a simple descriptive sense, then look at the deeper meanings of those components. How does the landscape demonstrate flux - or change with time due to the combination of immigrant and non-immigrant contributions?

What evidence of global flows do you see in the existing landscape features? How does the landscape support cultural needs and ways of life or the "particular rhythms of being" (Johnston, Gregory, Pratt, & Watts, 2000, p. 102)? Does the landscape represent something nostalgic or ongoing from previous landscapes? What elements of the landscape show the contribution of influences and ways of life from previous residences and the features of the current landscape?

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Here is a detailed outline of Ukrainian immigrants to the U.S. I will give you ideas and suggestions concerning the questions you pose concerning immigration and the landscape (in all definitions of that term).

Ukrainian Immigrants and the North American Landscape

Between 1899 and 1930, about 300,000 Ukrainians settled in the U.S, most in Pennsylvania. Unlike much of the literature on the Ukrainian cultural landscape, recent works such as the (2009) work by Haluszczak claim that Ukrainians were far more willing to integrate with the rest of society. In western Pennsylvania, several towns were founded by an early influx of Ukrainians, including small towns such as Derry, Etna, Butler, Export, Homer, Iselin or Smoke Run. At the same time, Haluszczak states that only 8 percent of Ukrainians changed their last names.

Late 19th century eastern European immigrants: either Catholic or Orthodox. At first, rejected by the Protestant majority. Their main jobs were in the port cities such as Baltimore, or in agricultural labor in Pennsylvania or New Jersey. Many of the Pennsylvania Ukrainians and Poles went into mining, really the worst and most dangerous of jobs (Woll, nd).

It should be noted that many of the Slavs were not differentiated from each other. Many Protestants erroneously thought Magyars were Slavs as well. Poles and Ukrainians were often considered the same people. Russians, Ukrainians and Carpatho-Russians (Rusyns) were not distinguished either.

Ukrainian immigrants often did not intend to stay in the U.S. In both Ohio and Pennsylvania, they hoped to make enough money to make the trip home. They lived in separatist housing. One danger was Protestant nativism, yet, the Progressives were another danger, since they preached assimilation into the Protestant mainstream.

Rather than assimilate, Ukrainians created a host of civic organizations. Just a few are: Ukrainian National Association, the Ukrainian National Aid Association, the Ukrainian Workingmen's Association, and the Providence Association of Ukrainian Catholics (OHC, 2008 and Wynnytsky, 1961). The Ridna Shkola was an attempt to resist liberal assimilation by creating Sunday schools were eastern theology would be taught in Ukrainian.

In both Canada and the U.S, government workers and charitable organizations that spoke Ukrainian or Russian were very rare. This meant that state support did not come, or came very late. This meant, again, the community needed to build these from private funds. These buildings looked very much like North American schools, but were given Ukrainian ...

Solution Summary

The solution describes landscapes influenced by immigrant communities.

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