NUTRITION - Preparation

See attachment for full questions:

1. Which of the following is an example of a macronutrient?
Protein
Calcium
Vitamin C
Vitamin D

2. What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?
160
345
560
755

3. A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:
The Dietary Reference Intakes because they are a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the United States and Canada.
The Tolerable Upper Intake levels because they are the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people.
The Estimated Average Requirements because they reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific function in half of the healthy people of a population.
The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.

4. As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
Diet recall, food likes and dislikes, allergies, favorite family recipes
Anthropometric data, physical examinations, food likes and dislikes, family tree
Diet record that includes what the patient usually eats, which will provide sufficient information
Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests

5. What single behavior contributes to the most deaths in the United States?
Poor diet
Tobacco use
Alcohol intake
Sexual activity

6. All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information EXCEPT
Who's Who in Nutrition.
the Food and Drug Administration.
the United States Department of Agriculture.
the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

7. Nutrient dense refers to foods that
carry the USDA nutrition labeling.
are higher in weight relative to volume.
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.
contain a mixture of carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

8. Consider the following menu from the point of view of the USDA Food Patterns. Which of the following describes the nutritional value of the fruits and vegetables in this menu?

A source of vitamin A is missing
A source of vitamin C is marginal
The daily amounts recommended for a 2000-kcalorie diet are met
The daily amounts recommended for a 2000-kcalorie diet are exceeded

9. Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
Coconut
Legumes
Skim milk
Potato salad

10. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?
Vitamin B12 in fortified cereals has low bioavailability
Vegan mothers need only infrequent intake of vitamin B12-fortified cereals
The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may be present in an inactive form
Infants born to vegan mothers are resistant to the development of vitamin B12 deficiency

11. After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Jejunum, duodenum, colon, ileum, rectum
Jejunum, ileum, duodenum, rectum, colon
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
Stomach, jejunum, duodenum, colon, ileum

12. What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
Absorbs water
Inhibits peristalsis
Neutralizes the food mass
Creates an optimum acidity

13. Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
It carries fats away from the intestines
It contains a fluid with a composition similar to pancreatic fluid
It circulates via a one-way pump at the junction to the subclavian vein
It serves to transport both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins to the vascular system

14. What are the usual consequences of removing a diseased gallbladder?
Inability to digest fats
Some damage to the pancreas
Inability to digest carbohydrates
Delivery of bile directly to the small intestine

15. Which of the following is NOT among the chief causes of ulcers?
H. pylori infection
Excessive caffeine consumption
Regular use of anti-inflammatory drugs
Disorders that cause high gastric acid output

16. Which of the following is NOT a common dietary source of carbohydrate?
Starch
Maltose
Cellulose
Glycogen

17. Which of the following enzymes does NOT act on simple sugars?
Lactase
Sucrase
Amylase
Maltase

18. Your nephew Jimmy, who is 10 years old, has told you that his body doesn't make insulin. He confides in you that he craves candy but was told by his parents that he can only eat sugar-free snacks. From which of the following conditions does Jimmy most likely suffer?
Hyperactivity
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

19. Based on height, weight, age, and physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2200 kcalories per day. Which of the following portions is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA Food Patterns for added sugars in your diet?
15 tsp honey
20 tsp hard candy
10 tsp corn starch
10 tsp brown sugar

20. Which of the following is a feature of dairy products and carbohydrate?
A cup of milk yields about 6 g of carbohydrate
Most cheeses provide little, if any, carbohydrate
Cottage cheese provides about 12 g of carbohydrate per cup
A cup of yogurt yields about 3 g of carbohydrate

21. Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
amino acids.
double bonds.
saccharide units.
peptide linkages.

22. Which of the following is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temperature?
Origin of the fat
Degree of saturation
Number of acid groups
Number of oxygen atoms

23. Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this effect?
Oatmeal is a low-fat food and inhibits the body's synthesis of cholesterol
Oatmeal is high in complex fibers that inhibit cholesterol-synthesizing enzymes
Oatmeal consumed on a regular basis suppresses the craving for high-cholesterol foods
Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement

24. You and your friend John are planning a college graduation party and you want to include healthy snack alternatives. You select fruit, veggies, low-fat dips, low-fat cheeses, whole-wheat crackers, and low-fat potato chips. John says he has heard about the fat replacer olestra in the potato chips and asks you how it works. You reply that olestra
slows the pancreas's release of lipase enzyme.
consists of tight protein-binding molecules that replace the fat molecules usually present in potato chips.
contains a fat-like substance that the body's enzymes can't break down and therefore cannot be absorbed.
is first subjected to radiation exposure to desaturate the bonds within the fat molecules, which reduces the kcalorie content.

25. Which of the following is a good plant source of omega-3 lipids?
Flax seeds
Safflower oil
Sunflower seeds
Corn oil margarine