Policy Formulation

J.W. Kingdon describes the agenda setting stage of policy formulation as a function of the confluence of three "streams" of activities: problems, possible solutions to the problems, and political circumstances. According to this metaphor, all three streams must be present for the policymaking process to move to the legislation development phase.

CAN YOU ---Analyze and discuss President Clinton's Health Reform Proposal of 1993 using the terms of this metaphor. Apply your critical thinking skills to assess the events surrounding this proposal as objectively as possible.

Reference:
Longest, Beaufort B. Health Policymaking in the United States. 4th ed. Chicago: AUPHA Press, 2006.

President Clinton's Health Reform Proposal of 1993 CAN BE FOUND ON THE WEB, SEE ATTACH FILE

AGENDA SETTING -- here it is

Kingdon (1995 describes agenda setting in public policymaking as a function of the confluence of three streams of activity: problems, possible solutions to the problems, and political circumstances. Some people prefer the term "issue" to Kingdon's choice of "problem" to refer to something that might trigger policymaking (Gormley and Boccuti 2001) it really does not matter which term is used; we will use "problem" to be consistent with kingdon's terminology. In his conceptualization, when problems/ possible solution/ political circumstances flow together in a favorable alignment, a policy window" (kingdon1995, 166) or window of opportunity" opens. When this happens, a problem/ potential solution combination that might lead to a new public law or an amendment to an existing one emerges from the set of competing problem/ possible solution combinations and moves along in the policy making process

Agenda setting as the confluence of problems, possible solutions, and political circumstances

Problem -----------------
Possible solution -----------------------a place on the policy Agenda
Political circumstances ---------------

Current health policies in the form of public laws, such as those pertaining to environment protection, licensure of health-related practitioner and organizations, funding for AIDS research or for women's health, and regulation of pharmaceuticals, exits because problem or issues emerged from agenda setting and triggered changes in policy in the form of changes in public law. However, the mere existence of problems in these areas was not sufficient to trigger the development of legislation intended to address them.

The existence of health- Related problems, even very serious ones such as millions of people with adequate health insurance coverage or the continuing widespread use of tobacco products, does not invariably lead to the establishment of policies intended to solve or ameliorate these problems. There also must be potential solution to the problems as well the political will to enact specific legislation intended to solve or ameliorate the problems. Obviously, agenda setting is crucial to nature of the nation's health policies. Agenda setting is best understood in the context of its key variable: problems, possible solution, and political circumstances.

Attachments

Solution Summary

Analyzes and discusses President Clinton's Health Reform Proposal of 1993 using the terms of this metaphor (problems, possible solutions to the problems, and political circumstances) applying critical thinking skills to assess the events surrounding this proposal objectively.