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Confidence Interval Estimation of the MeanPopulation Mean Unknown/ Standard Deviation Known or large sample (30 or more) p.298
If we do not know the population mean, but we do know the standard deviation of the population, and we take a sample, we can find out how close our sample mean is to the population mean by calculating the confidence interval.
The calculation for this is:
EMBED Equation.3
Lets say you draw a sample of 30 cookies from your production line. You dont know the mean population weight of the cookies, but you do know the SD is .5 ounces per cookie. The average weight of your 30 cookies is 3 ounces. How close to the actual population mean is that average?
First you have to decide how confident you want to be that you are close to the population mean. You dont want a confidence interval thats too wideafter all, if its too liberal, it wont mean anything. So, lets say you are willing to be 95% confident. This is 2 tailedwe are looking for above and below the mean, so before you look up the value in your Z table, you need to know you are not looking for .05youre looking to divide .05 by 2you have to split the difference into 21 tails=.025 on each end.
.5-.025=.475.
Look at the Z table. Where do you see a value of .475? 1.96, right? That means a Z value of 1.96 accounts for anything that is 2.5% above that point on the curve and also, as a negative number, -1.96, the first 2.5% of the curve. So we are accounting for 95% of the area under the curve in our calculation of a confidence interval.
EMBED Equation.3 Equals
3 ounces ( 1.96 (.5 ounces/(30)=
3 ( 1.96 (.5/5.48)=
3 ( 1.96 (.09)=
3 ( .18.
This means we are 95% confident that the mean of all cookies produced at that factory weigh between 2.82 and 3.18 ounces.
Do the exercise
A sample of 49 observations is taken from a normal population. The sample mean is 55 and the sample standard deviation is 10. Determine the 99% confidence interval for the population mean.
Confidence Interval Estimation of the mean (Population SD and mean are unknown)/ <30 or fewer p.306
Usually though you dont know the mean or the standard deviation of a population. In that case, we can use a distribution called Students T. It is slightly flatter than the Normal Distribution and there is a different t distribution for ever number of degrees of freedom.
Df are how many variables can vary before the last one that has to be known. For example, if you add up a list of numbers and get a sum:
1 +2+3+4+5=15
If we then know the sum is 15, we can add any 4 of the numbers, but the 5th one cant vary if we are still going to get a sum of 15. So we have 4 numbers that can vary, but one that cant if we still want the numbers to equal 15. So, there are 4 df.
You use a t distribution until you get to 30 or more dfthen it starts to resemble the normal curve, and you can go back to the Z table.
Assumptions for using t:
Assume the samples are from a normal population
Estimate the population SD with the sample sd.
Use the t rather than the z.
Heres the formula for t:
X ( t (s/(n)
Lets say we have a sample of 10 cookies. We calculate the mean and standard deviation of the weights of the 10 cookies. We decide we want to be 99% sure of where the mean falls in reference to the population mean. Lets say we get a mean of 1.8 ounces and a SD of .2 ounces. This is 2 tailed, so we need to find a tail value of .005 (.005 + .005=.01), we have 9 df (I have 10 samples and 1 independent variable), so the t value is 3.250.
( 3.250 (.2/(10)=
1.8 ( 3.25 (.06)=
1.8 (.2
So we are 99% confident that the mean weight of the population of cookies produced in that factory is between 1.6 and 2.0 ounces.
Do the exercise below
The owner of Brittens Egg Farm wants to estimate the mean number of eggs laid per chicken. A sample of 20 chickens shows they laid an average of 20 eggs per month with a standard deviation of 2 eggs per month.
What is the value of the population mean? What is the best estimate of this value?
Explain why we need to use the t distribution. What assumptions do we need to make?
For a 95% CI, what is the value of t?
Develop the 95% confidence interval for the population mean.
Would it be reasonable to conclude that the population mean is 21 eggs? What about 25 eggs?
Confidence interval for a population proportion
This will work when:
The binomial conditions have been met:
The sample data is the result of counts
There are only 2 possible outcomes
The probability of success remains the same from trial to trial
The trials are independent
The values of n( and n(1- () should both be greater than or equal to 5. That way you can use the Z table.
EMBED Equation.3
p=q-1
p=x/n (thats the way you find a percentage, remember?)
Lets say we have 30 cookies. And the proportion that comes off the assembly line whole is .3. We want to know how close this proportion is to what usual breakage rate is, or if the workers break them on purpose when they get hungry!
We want to be 99% confident. This is a two-tailed test, so z=2.58
.3 ( 2.58 ( (.3) (1-.3)/ 30
.3 (2.58 (.21 /30=
.3 ( 2.58 (.084)=
.3 ( .22
So we are 99% confident that the proportion of broken cookies coming off the assembly line is between .08 and .52.
Do the exercise below.
17) The Fox TV network is considering replacing one of its primetime crime investigation shows with a new family-oriented comedy show. Before a final decision is made, network executives commission a sample of 400 viewers. After viewing the comedy, 250 indicated they would watch the new show and suggested it replace the crime investigation show.
Estimate the value of the population proportion.
Compute the standard error of the proportion.
Develop a 99% CI for the population proportion.
Interpret your findings.
Sample size for estimating population mean
You have to decide how much error youre willing to have in your sample to get the best estimation of the population mean.
Heres your formula:
N = (zs/E)2
N is the size of the sample
Z is the level corresponding to the desired level of confidence
S is an estimate of the population SD (you may need to look at other studies to get this)
E is the maximum allowable error
Obviously you dont always get whole numbers, but you always round up, rather than down.
Example at bottom of page 319
Determine the mean of salary level of city council members in large cities
The error in estimating the mean is to be less than $100 with a 95% level of confidence.
The student found a DOL report that estimated the SD at 1,000.
How large a sample size does this student need to draw?
n= (1.96 * 1,000)/100) 2 = (19.6)2 =384.16=385.
If you up the level of confidence to 99%, then you need 666 sampled city council member salaries.
Sample size for estimating population proportion
n= p (1-p) (z/e)2 (The whole thing is squared!)
If you dont know the proportion, you can use .50, because the estimate of p can never be larger than when p=.5. If you think about it, that makes sense, because hypothesis testing is kind of based on the idea that everything has a 50/50 chance of happening and youve only shown an effect if its better than that!
What is the required sample size of cookies if Im sure I want to be within .10 of the proportion of cookies that weigh 3 ounces.
So, E=.10
Z=2.58
I do not have an estimate of the population proportion that weigh 3 ounces, so Im going to use .5.
n=.5(1-.5) (2.58/.10)2
n=.25 (25.8)2=.25*665.64=166.41 cookies need to be weighed.
Thats a lot of cookies!
Do the exercise, below
30. Past surveys reveal that 30% of tourists going to Las Vegas to gamble during a weekend spend more than $1000. Management wants to update this percentage.
a) The new study is to use the 90% CI. The estimate is to be within 1 % of the population proportion. What is the necessary sample size?
b) Management said the sample size determined above is too large. What can be done to reduce the sample size? Based on your suggestion, recalculate the sample size.Hypothesis testing
State null and alternate hypotheses
Select level of significance
Select specific test
State the decision rule
Compute value of test statistic
Compute the p value
Make decision about null hypothesis
Interpret results
We know how to state a null and alternate hypothesis.
Go over one and two tailed expression. = sign is always in the null (even if null is ,+ or >=)
Weve also talked about level of significance=.05 is ok; .01 is even better
Select the test (well get to that in a minute)
Compute the value of the test
Compute the p value of your test result
Make a decision about the null
Interpret the results
Testing for a population mean with a known population standard deviation
Two tailed test
This means we are only looking for a differencewere not looking for greater or lesser.
Example on p 343 of the book
Mean of 200
SD of 16
Ho= ( p= 200 per week
Ha=(p `" 200 per week
For this situation, you use a z test, because you know the population SD.
Level of significance of .01.
You will use a z test this is a large sample with a known SD.
Decision rule= If the z value falls above +2.58 or below -2.58, we will say the new production method has had a significant difference in production per week. If it falls between -2.58 and +2.58, we will fail to reject the null.
Take a sample and compute the mean. The mean is now 203.5 from the last 50 weeks.
Is that a significant difference from 200?
Z= X-/(/(n
203.5-200 / 16 / (50=
3.5/2.26=1.55
1.55 does not fall above or below 2.58, so we fail to reject the null.
You could also calculate the CI. If the original mean is within the CI, then you also could conclude you will fail to reject the null. In this case, for a 99% confidence interval, you get 203.5 2.58 (16/(50)= 203.5 5.8=
197.7 to 209.3, which includes 200.
If you have a large sample (30 or more) and you do not know the population SD, you can substitute the sample sd in the above formula.
A one-tailed test
Mean of 200
SD of 16
Ho= (p <= 200 per week
Ha=(p >200 per week
Z value would change, because you are only interested in the upper tail. Critical value would be 2.33. And we would still fail to reject the null, since 1.55 is less than 2.33.
Determining the p value
Gives us an indication of the strength of our difference. If you have a difference with a p value of .001, you have a very significant difference (your results would only occur due to chance 1/1000 times!)
Using our last example, the probability of a Z score of 1.55 is .5-.4394=.0606. You have to multiply this by 2, since it was a two tailed test, so our p value is .1212. So, our results would still only occur by chance 12% of the time, but we already agreed to not accept Ha unless the p was .01 or less or Z was smaller than -2.58 or greater than +2.58.
For the following questions, answer:
Is this a one-tailed or two-tailed test?
What is the decision rule?
What is the value of the test statistic?
What is your decision regarding Ho?
What is the p value? Interpret it.
Do the following problems
For each answer the following questions:
a) Is this a one-tailed or two-tailed test?
b) What is the decision rule?
c) What is the value of the tests statistic?
d) What is your decision regarding Ho?
e) What is the p value? Interpret it.
1. The following information is available:
Ho= (p = 50
Ha=(p `"50
The sample mean is 49, and the sample size is 36. Use a .05 significance level.
2. The following information is available:
Ho= (p <= 10
Ha=(p >10
The sample mean is 12, and the sample size is 36. The population S.D is 3. Use the .02 significance level.
Testing for a population mean, small sample/unknown SD
This time you use a t. The formula is:
t= X-/s/(n
Look up the t value using df=n-1
X= mean of the sample
=hypothesized population mean
s is the sample sd
n is the number of observations in the sample
Lets say I bake cakes. My usual mean number of cakes per week is 5. However, I started using a different production method and now I bake on average 7 cakes per week. I measured this over 25 weeks. My SD is 1 cake. I want to know if my new method is an improvement. I want to be 99% confident I have a new and better way, because Im thinking about patenting my idea!
Df=24
T value for 99% for a one tailed test (because I want to show improvement) is 2.492.
t= X-/s/(n
t= 7-5 / 1/(25=
2/ 1/5=
2/.2=
10
I can reject the nullI have significant difference.
The p value is at least .0005thats the lowest value on the table.
Making decisions about the null
You can either accept the null (there is no effect of your treatment)
You can reject the nullthere is an effect
You can also accept the null when there is an effect
You can also reject the null when there is no effect
Accept NullReject NullNull is trueCorrectType IAlternate is trueType IICorrect
Potential Hypothesis-Testing Pitfalls and Ethical Issues
When planning a study to test a hypothesis several questions need to be asked to ensure we are using the right methodology:
What is the goal of the experiment or research? Can we describe it in terms of the null and alternative hypothesis?
Is this going to be a one-tailed or two-tailed test?
Can we draw a random sample?
Is the data numerical or categorical?
What significance should we be using? (We want to avoid a Type I error.)
Is the sample large enough?
What statistical test procedure is to be used and why?
What kind of conclusions and interpretations can be drawn from the results of the hypothesis test?
In addition we need to be concerned with ethical issues of our methodology, including:
Making sure our data is collected in randomized fashion. We need to eliminate potential bias in the sample. This can be especially difficult when sampling people, since the researchers will be tempted to take the responses they can get, rather than working for a real randomized sample selection. People cannot be allowed to self-select for the study.
Obtaining informed consent from human subjects being "treated." Any time people are used in a study we need to obtain their consent.
The type of testone tail or two. One approach to testing is to use a two-tailed test. Researchers may be tempted to test for the single tail to prove their point, disregarding opposite data that would change the results of their study.
Our choice of level of significance. Select the level of significance ahead of the study, not after it is done.
Data snooping. Dont review the data and then draw up your hypothesis.
Cleansing and discarding of data. When cleansing the data, look for outliers and bad data input errors, or missing data items that will affect the results of your analysis. You have to look carefully at any decisioQk -
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Reporting of findings. Report ALL of your findings. Dont be selective about what data to report and what not to report.
Unethical behavior occurs when a researcher willfully causes a selection bias in data collection, manipulates the treatment of human subjects without informed consent, uses data snooping to select the type of test and/or level of significance to his or her advantage, hides the facts by discarding observations that do not support a stated hypothesis, or fails to report pertinent findings.
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