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    Process Engineering

    Process engineering focuses on the design, operation, control and optimization of chemical, physical and biological processes through with help from a systematic computer-based method. Process engineering is applied in a wide range of industries such as, chemical, petrochemical, mineral processing, advanced material, food, pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries.

    Processing systems engineering is a relatively new area of chemical engineering. The term was first used in a special volume of AlChE symposium series in 1961. However, it was not until 1982 when the first international symposium on this topic took place in Kyoto, Japan.

    There are several significant accomplishments made in process engineering. The first is process design, synthesis of energy recovery networks, synthesis of distillation systems, synthesis of reactor networks and the design of the production reactors for the production of plutonium. Process control models predictive control, controllability measures, robust control, nonlinear control, statistical process control and thermodynamic-based control. Process operations contribute when scheduling process networks, multiperiod planning and optimization, data reconciliation, real-time optimization and fault diagnosis. The last accomplishment is the support tools. These tools include sequential modular simulation, equation based process simulation, AL/expert systems, large-scale nonlinear programming, optimization of differential algebraic equations, mixed integer nonlinear programming and global optimization. 

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    BrainMass Categories within Process Engineering

    Petroluem Refinery Engineering

    Solutions: 20

    Petroleum refining processes are the engineering processes that used in petroleum refineries to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.

    Plastics Engineering

    Solutions: 9

    Plastics engineering is the processing, design, development, and manufacture of plastics products.

    Paper Engineering

    Solutions: 0

    Paper engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the ability to convert renewable raw materials into useful and valuable products.

    BrainMass Solutions Available for Instant Download

    Combustion of gaseous fuels

    A fuel gas consists of 75% butane (C4H10), 10% propane (C3H8) and 15% butene (04}18) by volume. It is to be fed to the combustion chamber in 10% excess air at 25°C, where it is completely burnt to carbon dioxide and water. The flue gases produced are to be used to generate 5 bar steam from water at 90°C. (a) Write balanced

    Calculating Rate of Water Removal

    See the attached file. In a wood chemistry/wood physics lab, we were asked to place a piece of wood that contained approx. 64% moisture content in a hydraulic press where we applied a constant 400 psi pressure and applied a constant 400 degrees F of heat. We inserted a Type K thermocouple into the piece of wood so we could reco

    Inlet velocity and flow from approach piping to the stilling well

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). > 1200 gallons/min of water flows into approach piping that is tapered in design ----- 1000 gallons/min enters a stilling well while 200 gallons per minute recirculates back to a tank: Questi

    Activation Energy, pH and Solution Concentration

    1. The rate constant nearly doubles for some reactions when there is an increase in temperature from 17ºC to 32ºC. Calculate the activation energy. 2. In a certain tap-water sample, [H^+] = 4.6 X 10^-7 M. What is the concentration of OH^-? 3. When 50mL of 1.000 M HCl is titrated with 1.000 M NaOH, the pH increases. Wh

    Calculate insulating/heat resistance values

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). Determine which of the following 3 material substrates would have the best R-value or lowest thermal conductivity. The purpose is to determine which of the 3 materials would make the best insulator to heat and cold? The following is given:

    Cooling and heat transfer of/from various materials.

    An imaginary dimensionless room has a ceiling fan that moves 10 cubic feet of air per minute. Assuming the air flow is directed downward at a temperature of 65 degrees F --- there are 3 materials below at which the ceiling fan air is directed: 1) A 1 gallon container of water at 140 degrees F 2) A 1 pound block of wood at 22

    Arrhenius Equation for Process/Air Pollution Control

    A thermal process (in this example a large rotating dryer) operating at 1500 degrees F is said to have air emissions of 5 lbs/hr formaldehyde (from the presence of formic acid) and 2 lbs/hr acetaldehyde (from the presence of acetic acid). The air stream from the thermal process is quantified as 75,000 cu. ft. per minute. The

    Heat energy needed to raise water temperature

    100 gallons per minute flow of water at 50 degrees F passes through a theoretically 100% efficient heat exchanger. The hot side or energy to the heat exchanger is a 510 degree F hot gas (essentially steam). Assuming the 510 degree hot gas will heat the water, what is the energy in BTU's needed to accomplish and what would the

    Specify Control Scheme: Vapor-Phase Reactor

    8.14. Overhead vapor from a distillation column passes through a partial condenser. The uncondensed portion is fed into a vapor-phase reactor. The condensed portion is used for reflux in the distillation column. The vapor fed to the reactor can also come from a vaporizer which is fed from a surge tank. To conserve energy, it is

    Specify Control Scheme: Heat Exchanger

    7.22. A reactor is cooled by circulating liquid through a heat exchanger that produces low-pressure (10 psig) steam. This steam is then split between a compressor and a turbine. The portion that goes through the turbine drives the compressor. The portion that goes through the compressor is used by 50 psig steam users. 100 p stea

    Specify Control Scheme for Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). 8.15. Two distillation columns are heat-integrated as shown in the sketch below. The first column has an auxiliary condenser to take any excess vapor that the second column does not need. The second column has an auxiliary reboiler that provides additional heat

    Specify Control Scheme for a Cryogenic Stripper

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). S.17. Sketch a control scheme for the cryogenic stripper shown below that is used for removing small amounts of propane from natural gas. [DIAGRAM] (a) Cooling-water valve V-I is manipulated to control the gas temperature leavü4 the cooler. (b) Valve

    P-H Diagram, Power Requirement, and Displacement Rate

    See the attached file. An R 22 refrigeration cycle (shown on the following page) is used to provide 35 kW of cooling at -20 °C. R 22 leaves the water-cooled condenser 3 °C subcooled. The condensing temperature is 25 °C and the temperature in the flash tank is 0 °C. A portion of the flow from the condenser is cooled in the f

    Continious stirred tank reactor (CSTR): Volumetric Flow Calculation

    Liquid phase reaction reversible: A + B = R + S k1 = 7l/mol*min k2 = 3l/mol*min It occurs in a continuous stirred tank reactor of 120liters. 2 streams, one with 2.8 mol of A/liter and the other 1.6 mol of B/liter, feed the reactor with the same volumetric flow. The goal is to have a 75% conversion of the limitant react

    Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor and Plug Flow Reactor

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). 1. Calculate the volume of a CSTR and of a PFR needed to convert 10 L/min of a 2.0 M solution of A to a concentration of 0.1 M. The reaction is A --> B, the rate law is -r = k CA, where k is 0.01667 sec-1. Which is larger? Why? 2. For the reaction given in p

    Find the apparent viscosity for each flow rate Q.

    A capillary rheometer is used to measure viscosity. A pressure transducer records the pressure drop deltaP across the die, and the die capillary has a diameter of 2 mm. Experiments are carried out at three volume flow rates Q, for dies of three lengths l. The Table below gives values of deltaP in MPa measured for polypropylene a

    Which Compound has Pharmaceutical Purposes?

    Erythromycin Estolate, USP Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate, USP Erythromycin Phosphate Erythromycin Stearate Erythromycin, Powder, USP How do I know which are used for pharmaceutical purposes?

    Steam Cycles: Two Stage Turbine and Cycle Efficiency

    Steam is supplied to a two-stage turbine at 40 bar and 350°C. It expands in the first turbine until it is dry saturated, then it is reheated to 350°C and expanded through the second-stage turbine. The condenser pressure is 0.035 bar. Calculate the work output and the heat supplied per kg steam for the plant assuming ideal proc

    Heat Exchanger: Condenser

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). Steam is condensed by cooling water in the condenser of a power plant. The mass flow rate of the cooling water and the rate of condensation are to be determined.

    Heat Exchanger Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

    The heat transfer coefficients and the fouling factors on the tube and shellside of a heat exchanger are given. The hermal resistance and the overall heat transfer coefficients based on the inner and outer areas are to be determined. Please see the attached file for the completely formatted problem.

    Radiation Heat Transfer: Coal Bricks to Steaks

    Please see the attached file for the completely formatted problem(s). A circular grill is considered. The bottom of the grill is covered with hot coal bricks, while the wire mesh on top of the grillis covered with steaks. The initial rate of radiation heat transfer from coal bricks to the steaks is to be determined.

    Radiation Heat Transfer

    Please see the attached file for the completely formatted problem(s). Top and side of a cubical furnace are blackand are maintainedat uniform temperatures. Net radiation heat transferrate to the basefrom the top and side surfaces are to be determined.

    Lumped System Analysis: Quenching of Brass Balls

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). A number of brass balls are to be quenched at a specific rate. The temperature of the balls after quenching and the rate at which heat neds to be removed from the water in order to keep its temperature constant are to be determined.

    Lumped System Analysis

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). The temperature of a gas stream is measured by a thermocouple. Find the time it takes to reach 99% of delta T.

    Thickness of Insulation for Avoiding Condensation on Refrigerator Wall

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). The wall of a refrigerator is costructed of fiberglass insulation sandwiched between two layers of sheet metal.The minimum thickness of insulation that needs to be used in the wall in order to avoid condensation on the outer surface to be determined. given that

    Heat Loss through the Roof of a House

    The roof of a house with a gas furnace consists of 3 cm thick concrete that is losing heat to the outdoors by radiation and convection. Determine the rate of heat transfer through the roof and money lost through the roof that night during a 14 hour period. Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem.

    Center Temperature: Electric Current Passed through a Wire

    An electric current of 200 A is passed through a stainless steel wire having a radius of 0.001268 m. The length of the wire L is 0.91 m and has a resistance of 0.126 ohms. The outer surface temperature Ts is held at 422.1 K. The average conductivity is k=22.5 W/m*K. What is the center temperature?

    heat transfer coefficient in a radial system with fouling factor

    NOTE: The complete problem statement is attached as an adobe PDF file with all required information and formatting. Calculate the overall heat transfer of a brass tube with fouling on the inside and outside of the tube surface. Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient, Uo, based on the outer surface of a brass tube w

    Calculate MUmax and Yx/s Given Growth Data

    How do you calculate MUmax (hr^-1) and Yx/s (g DCW/g Substrate) given the following information: Time (hrs), Cell Mass (g DCW/L), Substrate (g/L)? 0, .5, 20 1, 1, 19 2, 2,

    Rankine Cycle

    Consider a Rankine cycle with reheat. Compressed water enters the boiler at 21 bars and is heated to 500C. Due to frictional effects there is a pressure loss of 1 bar in the boiler. At the exit of the boiler 40% of the steam produced is extracted for an external chemical process. The exhaust pressure of the first turbine is