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# Hydrogeology

Hydrogeology studies the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks. It is an interdisciplinary subject which also considers the aspects of chemistry, the physical nature of soil and rocks, biological matter and the legal interactions between soil, water, nature and society. Groundwater flows following the pressure gradients which match the fractures and conduits in circuitous paths. Evidenltly, groundwater does not always flow in the subsurface down-fill following the surface topography

The mathematical relationships used to describe the flow of water through porous media are the diffusion and Laplace transform equations. Steady groundwater flow is simulated using electrical, elastic and heat conduction analogies. The interplay of the different facets of a multi-component system requires both theoretical and experimental knowledge.

Porosity, an important concept in this area of study, is the fraction which indicates the amount of pore space between unconsolidated soil particles or within a fractured rock. It is an aquifer property. The majority of groundwater movement is dependent on porosity and much is available to allow for flow. Permeability on the other hand is the expression of the connectedness of the pores. An example of this is a pumice stone. A pumice stone, in its un-fractured state, makes a poor aquifer.

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### Fluid Viscosity and Darcy's Law

7. A sand aquifer has a median pore diameter of 0.232 mm. The fluid density is 1.003 x 103 kg/m3 and the fluid viscosity is 1.15 x 10-3 N-s/m2. If the flow rate is 0.0067 m/s, is Darcy's law valid? What is the reason for your answer? Show all work.

### Hydrogeology Fetters (discharge per unit width)

13. Refer to Figure 4.19. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 14.5 m/day. The value of h1 is 17.6 m and the value of h2 is 15.3 m. The distance from h1 to h2 is 525 m. There is an average rate of recharge of 0.007 m/d. (A)What is the average discharge per unit width at x 5 0? (B)What is the average discharge per uni

### Hydrogeology Fetters (pressure head)

5. A piezometer in a saline water aquifer has a point-water pressure head of 18.73 m. If the water has a density of 1022 kg/m3 and is at a field temperature of 18Â°C, what is the equivalent fresh-water pressure head? Show all work.

### Hydrogeology Fetter (fluid pressure)

3. A piezometer is screened 723.4 m above mean sea level. The point-water pressure head in the piezometer is 17.9 m and the water in the aquifer is fresh at a temperature of 20Â°C. (A)What is the total head in the aquifer at the point where the piezometer is screened? (B) What is the fluid pressure in the aquifer at the point

### Hydrogeology Fetter (fluid density)

1. A fluid in an aquifer is 6.5 m above a reference datum, the fluid pressure is 1800 N/m2, and the flow velocity is 3.4 3 1025 m/s. The fluid density is 1.01 3 103 kg/m3. (A) What is the total energy per unit mass? (B) What is the total energy per unit weight? Show all work.