1. a) A copper refining cell is operating with an electrolyte which contains 0.05 m Sn2+. At what concentration of Cu2+ will the tin start to plate out in preference to the copper? The cell temperature is 40°C.
b) A polarization potential arises from a concentration difference between ions in the neighborhood of the electrode and those in the bulk of the electrolyte solution. Calculate the polarization potential in a copper electrorefining cell given the following information:
Cell temperature: 40°C
Cu2+ concentration in the bulk of the solution: 1.0 m
Cu2+ concentration adjacent to the anode: 5.0 m
Cu2+ concentration adjacent to the cathode: 0.2 m
Solution provides detailed equational explanation of how to determine concentration and polarization.