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Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry is the examination of the structures and behaviors of carbon-based compounds. It uses both physical and chemical methods to evaluate these properties. Although it aims to study the behavior of organic substances in its purest form, it also focuses largely on organic reactions within different chemical systems, such as in solutions and mixtures. Even though Organic Chemistry is considered an isolated sub-discipline of chemistry, it is not truly distinct from Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry or General Chemistry, as it draws on concepts from each of these disciplines.

Organic Chemistry largely focuses on the study of structure, as one of the underlying principles is that structure determines behavior. Thus, by knowing an organic compounds structure, a chemist can predict its behavior under different chemical contexts. A common way to determine structure is through spectroscopy, which is the study of the electromagnetic interactions within the molecule under study. For example, analyzing the different peaks in a mass spectrum will reveal the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of the different ions that are generated using the mass spectrometer. Thus, using analytical techniques to determine structure, property or reactivity is extremely important in the field of Organic Chemistry.

Since organic compounds form the basis of all life on Earth, the applicability of Organic chemistry is not limited to the laboratory – it also heavily extends into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and even botany. Thus, studying Organic Chemistry is essential for the prediction of organic chemical behavior. 

Categories within Organic Chemistry

Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Postings: 365

An organic acid is a carbon-based compound with acidic properties, while an organic base is a carbon-based compound with basic properties.

Organic Chemistry Bonding

Postings: 289

In Organic Chemistry, Bonding refers to the process of a carbon-based molecule forming a chemical bond due to the attractive interactions between two atoms.

Organometallic Chemistry

Postings: 32

Organometallic Chemistry is the examination of the structures and properties of chemical substances which contain covalent-character bonds between carbon and a metal.

Mass fragmentation patterns for a few compounds

Guideline 1. The relative intensity of the molecular ion peak is greatest fro the straight chain compound and decreases as the degree of branching increase. 2. The relative intensity of the molecular ion peak usually decreases with increasing molecular weight in a homologous series. Fatty esters appear to be an exception.

Energy Diagram: Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Products

I am trying to draw an energy diagram for the methone to -/-menthol & +/-neomenthol. It is a redox reaction but is it also an SN2 reaction? Product is slightly in favour to -/- menthol, does this mean -/-menthol is thermodynamically favourable to +/-neomenthol How do I determine which is more kinetically favoured?

hplc

In HPLC, how often should I need to run standard with samples? Why? If the retention time is changed with real samples compared to standard, how can I determine if the peak with changed retention time is samples are actually compounds A and B?

Assorted questions on aromatics and grignards

1. Give the structures of all possible products when 3-bromopentane reacts by the E2 mechanism. 2. Ethers and alcohols can be isomeric. Write the structures, and give names for all possible isomers with the molecular formula C4H10O. 3. Using a Grignard reagent and the appropriate aldehyde or ketone, show how each of the

Assorted Alkene Reactions

Hi. I'd like to check answers to some things before my final. I like handwritten work because it really helps me with the thought processes, like taking a test. 1. Write an equation for the sequential hydroboration and H2O2/OH ̄ oxidation of 4-ethyl-3- heptene. 2. Indicate the main monosubstitution products in each o

Recrystallization

The goal of the recrystallization procedure is to obtain purified material with a maximum recovery. For each of the following situations, explain why this goal would be adversely affected. a) In the solution step, an unnecessarily large volume of solvent is used. b) The crystals obtained after filtration are not washed with

Synthesis Questions

Can you please explain these problems we don't have a book for my class and I haven't had any luck searching around online or from my physical organic book. Please let me know if you can do these?! 1.) Which form of molecule A is the most stable (1, 2, or 3)? Provide a graphical (i.e. figures not graphs) provide an explanatio

Nomenclature of alkanes and alkenes

This solution describes how to name alkanes and alkenes according to the rules of scientific nomenclature. It was originally part of my ebook EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. If you want more information or a more complete description to include inorganic compounds, please see the ebook section of this we

Chemical Compounds and Equations

(a) The equation below shows the final product in the reaction of propan-1-ol with potassium permanganate in acidic solution. Draw the structure of the compound that forms initially in this reactionn. (see attached file for formula) (b) Complete the following equation by drawing the structure of the organic compound that w

Solid Phase Extraction

Calculate the % difference for caffeine and standard deviation using your method so i can compare it to my lab partners results.

Orbital analysis

(a) The pericyclic reaction shown below is an example of the Cope rearrangement. (i) Classify the sigmatropic rearrangement as an [n,n]-sigmatropic rearrangement, where n is an integer. Show how the classification is arrived at as part of your answer. Please see the attached document for the diagram. (ii) An incomplet

Ethylene Glycol in a Car Radiator

How many liters of the antifreeze ethylene glycol [CH2(OH)CH2(OH)] would you add to a car radiator containing 6.50 L of water if the coldest winter temperature in your area is -20 0C? Calculate the boiling point of this water-ethylene glycol mixture. (The density of ethylene glycol is 1.11.g/mL)

FC assay

In the Folin Ciocalteu assay, why do we need to excess FCR? Also give 3 reasons why gallic acid is used as standard for the total phenolic assay?

pH of Acetylsalicylic Acid

The active ingredient in aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid (HC9H7O4), a monoprotic acid with a Ka = 3.3x10-4. What is the pH of a solution obtained by dissolving two extra-strength aspirin tablets, containing 500 mg of acetylsalicylic acid each, in 250 mL of water?

Dimerization of C5H6

Suggest a method for measuring the rate of the following reactions: i) 2H2O2(aq) ------> 2H2O (l) + O2(g) ii) HBr(g) -----------> H2(g) + Br2(g) (colorless)............(colorless)....(dark red-brown) For the dimerization reaction 2C5H6(g) --------> C10H12(g) Change in the concentration of C5H6/ change in

Cyclopentane

Cyclopentane is a simple hydrocarbon. If 0.0956 g of the compound is burned in oxygen, 0.300 g of CO2 and 0.123 g H2O are produced. What is the empirical formula of cyclopentane? If the molar mass of cyclopentane is 70.1 g/mol, what is its molecular formula? Please provide detailed explanation.

Chlorination Reaction

4. For the reactions: Cl + H-CH3 --> Cl-CH3 + H Cl + H-CH3 --> CH3 + H-Cl a) Calculate the change in H for each reaction using bonds dissociation enthalpies. b) One of these reactions is the rate-determining step in the correct mechanism for the chlorination of methane. What is it? Explain why, based on

Liquifying Propane

Please show all work for the final calculations and answers. Thanks! 1) Calculate the entropy change that occurs when 3.5 moles of an ideal gas expands from 1.75 L at 20 degress Celsius to 8.46 L at .54 atm. Explain your strategy for solving this before you start. 2) Pop is packaged under CO2 (g) slightly above atmospher

Organic vs. Silicon-Based Solar Cells

Compare and contrast organic and present day silicon-based (inorganic) solar cells. Describe the physics behind the operation of these solar photovoltaic devices and then discuss how their efficiencies are determined. What advantages and disadvantages exist for both organic and inorganic solar cells? Describe the main

Bomb and Radiation

Consider a van parked in a lot outside a professional football stadium in Atlanta, GA on a Sunday afternoon. One ounce of radioactive isotope Cesium 137 was mixed in with the explosive that has been detonated and has caused considerable blast damage. The dust cloud carries toward the nearby downtown area on a light wind speed of

Determining Optically Active Forms

Which of the following substances can exist in an optically active form? a. 1,3-dibromopropane b. ethyl cyclohexane c. 3-ethylpentane Please refer to the attachment for full problem set.

Combinatorial Chemistry Sample Solution

Lab 7: Combinatorial Chemistry Ojective: - Combinatorial Chemistry will be used to rapidly produce a library of potential drugs and explore their potential as antibiotics. This lab is adapted from "Combinatorial Chemistry: Antibiotic Drug Discovery" published in Doxsee and Hutchinson, Green Organic Chemistry: Strategies

Solubility: Water, Hexane, Ethanol, Ether, Heptane, Ect.

Could you please help me with the following chemistry questions?: 1) Rank them in order of relative solubility(1: most soluble, 3: least soluble) 1. Ethanol in Water? in Hexane? 2. Diethyl ether in Water? in hexane? 3. Heptane in water? in Hexane? 2) When mixed water and ether (diethyl ether