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    Describe three real-world examples of effective public relations. Explain why these three examples are effective.

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    1. Describe three real-world examples of effective public relations (do you have any personal experiences to consider?). Explain why these three examples are effective. List all references. Minimum of 700-1000 words.
    Your tentative outline might look something to the effect:
    I. Introduction (about ¼ page, ending with purpose statement, e.g., The purpose of this paper is to examine effective public relations through three real-world examples)
    II. Example 1 (about 1 page)
    III. Example 2 (about one page)
    IV. Example 3 (about one page)
    V. Conclusion (summarize main points)

    Let's look at five examples for you to consider:
    Example 1:
    Celebrities tend to be fans of the dictum "any publicity is good publicity". If a celebrity says or does something embarrassing, he or she will often turn it into a strength and make it part of his or her "image." This tactic is used just as much with favorable situations as much as with unfavorable ones.
    A current (2004) example involves the entertainer Jessica Simpson, who gained nationwide prominence when she wondered aloud on a reality show if "Chicken of the Sea"-brand tuna fish was actually chicken or tuna, garnering her a reputation for being slow-witted. But by the summer of 2004, she was being paid to endorse a brand of breath mints called "Liquid Ice." In the product's television commercial, Simpson replicates her earlier confusion by debating whether the mint is really liquid or ice. So although she was previously ridiculed, she (and her advisers) turned her nationwide embarrassment into a lucrative endorsement deal. Thus, it was effective. Why was it effective? This confusion obviously tapped into the consciousness of the audience, or wa sit more about Simpson knowing how to turn her weaknesses into strengths? In other words, it was a public relations crisis - negative publicity that could adversely effect the success of the company or person, but she handled it successfully, through effective PR, turning the weakness into a strength.

    Example 2:
    A more dated example, is that of Bernays, who was the profession's first theorist. A nephew of Sigmund Freud, Bernays drew many of his ideas from Freud's theories about the irrational, unconscious motives that shape human behavior. Bernays authored several books, including Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923), Propaganda (1928), and The Engineering of Consent (1947). Bernays saw public relations as an "applied social science" that uses insights from psychology, sociology, and other disciplines to scientifically manage and manipulate the thinking and behavior of an irrational and "herdlike" public. "The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society," he wrote in Propaganda. "Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country."

    For example, one of Bernays' early clients was the tobacco industry. In 1929, he orchestrated a legendary publicity stunt aimed at persuading women to take up cigarette smoking, which was then considered unfeminine and inappropriate for women with any social standing. To counter this image, Bernays arranged for New York City débutantes to march in that year's Easter Day Parade, defiantly smoking cigarettes as a statement of rebellion against the norms of a male-dominated society. Photographs of what Bernays dubbed the "Torches of Liberty Brigade" were sent to newspapers, convincing many women to equate smoking with women's rights. Some women went so far as to demand membership in all-male smoking clubs, a highly controversial act at the time. His campaign was thus successful. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_relations Why was it successful? He used the media and public relations effectively to meet his campaign goal.

    Example 3: The Tylenol Crisis: How Effective Public Relations Saved Johnson & Johnson
    In general, crisis management is part of Public Relations, and when handled effectively, it works. It involves identifying a crisis, planning a response to the crisis and confronting and resolving the crisis. Crisis management can be applied in almost any field of endeavor, but it is most commonly used in international relations, political science and management. For more about crisis management in international relations, see International crisis. In general terms, the theory of crisis management can be divided into crisis bargaining and negotiation, crisis decision making, and crisis dynamics. Any examples around these ideas come to mind?
    For example, in business there are three main types of crisis:
    Financial crisis - short term liquidity or cash flow problems; and long term bankruptcy problems
    Public relations crisis - negative publicity that could adversely effect the success of the company
    Strategic crisis - changes in the business environment that call the viability of the company into question - for example the introduction of the automobile was a strategic crisis for buggy-whip manufacturers
    Can you think of real life examples of corporations that effectively used public relations to handle financial crisis, a public relations crisis, or a strategic crisis? Let's look at one a public relations crisis that Johnson & Johnson handled effectively:

    Tylonol crisis:
    In the fall of 1982, McNeil Consumer Products, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, was confronted with a crisis when seven people on Chicago's West Side died mysteriously. Authorities determined that each of the people that died had ingested an Extra-Strength Tylenol capsule laced with cyanide. The news of this incident traveled quickly and was the cause of a massive, nationwide panic. These poisonings made it necessary for Johnson & Johnson to launch a public relations program immediately, in order to save the integrity of both their product and their corporation as a whole. Certain preliminary measures need to be taken to prevent a crisis. Companies should always plan ahead and project likely outcomes. They should avoid decisions that have the potential to turn into a crisis. They should know their "worst case scenarios" and have a contingency plan for it. http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/w/x/wxk116/tylenol/crisis.html).
    What Did Johnson and Johnson Do? (Excerpt)
    After this crisis, Johnson & Johnson was faced with quite a dilemma. They needed to find the best way to deal with the tamperings, without destroying the reputation of their company and their most profitable product, Tylenol. Many marketing experts thought that Tylenol was doomed by doubts that the public may have had to whether or not the product was safe. "I don't think they can ever sell another product under that name," advertising genius Jerry Della Femina told the New York Times in the first days following the crisis. "There may be an advertising person who thinks he ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution describes three real-world examples of effective public relations. It also explains why these three examples are effective.