What is the relationship between organizational structure and the decision-making process? Provide examples.

Q 1. What is the relationship between organizational structure and the decision-making process? Provide examples. Document your ideas with Peer Reviewed articles that you have read.

Please use this as a reference with one quote from the article:

Fredrickson, J. W. (1986). The Strategic Decision Process and Organizational Structure. Academy Of Management Review, 11(2), 280-297. doi:10.5465/AMR.1986.4283101

Q 2 Provide examples of when an organization would consider organizational change. (Exhibit 8-10 Ch. 8, see below) What challenges to cultural awareness might you encounter when attempting to drive organizational change? Document your ideas with Peer Reviewed articles(articles) that you have read.

EXHIBIT 8-10 When Is Change Needed?40(below)
? A change in the size of the corporation?due to growth, consolidation, or reduction
? A change in key individuals?which may alter management objectives, interests,
and abilities
? A failure to meet goals, capitalize on opportunities, or be innovative
? An inability to get things done on time
? A consistently overworked top management that spends excessive hours on the job
? A belief that costs are extravagant or that budgets are not being met
? Morale problems
? Lengthy hierarchies that inhibit the exercise of strategic control
? Planning that has become increasingly staff-driven and is thus divorced from line
? Innovation that is stifled by too much administration and monitoring of details
? Uniform solutions that are applied to nonuniform situations. The extreme opposite of this
condition?when things that should or could function in a routine manner do not?should
also be heeded as a warning. In other words, management by exception has replaced
standard operating procedures
The following are a few specific indicators of international organizational malaise:
? A shift in the operational scope?perhaps from directing export activities to controlling
overseas manufacturing and marketing units, a change in the size of operations on a
country, regional, or worldwide basis, or failure of foreign operations to grow in
accordance with plans and expectations.
? Clashes among divisions, subsidiaries, or individuals over territories or customers in
the field
? Divisive conflicts between overseas units and domestic division staff or corporate staff
? Instances wherein centralization leads to a flood of detailed data that is neither fully
understood nor properly used by headquarters
? Duplication of administrative personnel and services
? Underutilization of overseas manufacturing or distribution facilities
? Duplication of sales offices and specialized sales account executives
? Proliferation of relatively small legal entities or operating units within a country
or geographic area
? An increase in overseas customer service complaints
? Breakdowns in communications within and among organizations
? Unclear lines of reporting and dotted-line relationships, and ill-defined executive

Please use this article as a reference with a quote.

Van de Ven, A. H., & Sun, K. (2011). Breakdowns in Implementing Models of Organization Change. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 25(3), 58-74. doi:10.5465/AMP.2011.63886530