Explore BrainMass


Using the same case scenario can you apply a theoretical framework either from the developmental perspective or from the person-in-environment perspective. State which theory you are applying, and review how this theory could be used to assist the client.

300 words or more with scholarly references

Joe was accompanied to a community counseling center by a friend who was also a career counseling client. Joe needed a great deal of support: and encouragement before he agreed to make an appointment. He asked for help to find a better job.
Joe dropped out of high school when he was in the 10th grade to work in a fast-food establishment. He recently completed a high school equivalency course and received a diploma. Now 22, he continues to live with his parents. His father is a fac¬tory Worker, his mother is a homemaker, and he has four siblings.
The counselor immediately recognized that Joe was very uncomfortable asking for help. He seemed very nervous and restless.

Counselor: Joe, I am pleased to know you (shaking hand). Your buddy here has been telling me about what a nice guy you are and what a good friend you have been.
Joe: Well, ah, thank you. He is a good friend too.
Counselor: It's great to have good friends. This reminds me of when a friend of mine helped me get started in college a few years ago.
The counselor continued to make small talk to help Joe feel more at ease. When it appeared that Joe was more relaxed, the counselor outlined his role as counselor and what is expected of a client during the career counseling process. Joe was receptive Io suggestions and agreed to keep his appointments and complete work away from I lie counseling center that might be assigned during the course of counseling.
During the intake interview the counselor discovered that Joe had taken part in career counseling while in a high school equivalency program.
Joe: Yes, I took several tests before I finished training.
Counselor: Do you recall the kind of tests?
Joe: One was for interests and the other was an aptitude test.
Counselor: Good! What did you decide after going over the results?
Joe: Well, I decided to think about two or three different jobs, but I didn't get anywhere Counselor: Explain more fully.

Joe: I thought the counselor was supposed Io tell me more about what 1 should do and what I'm qualified for.
As Joe and the counselor continued their discussion, it became apparent dial Joe had some faulty beliefs about career decision making, He evidently thought that someone would decide for him or provide a recipe for choosing a job with little effort on his part. In addition, the counselor suspected that there were some underlying reasons Joe was not taking appropriate actions to solve his problems, but this would have Io be confirmed by additional data and observation.
Joe: I just was not able to decide, and 1 really needed some help.
Counselor: Could you tell me about the kind of help you needed?
Joe: I don't exactly know, but I just couldn't see myself in those jobs. I just don't know about all those jobs. My family makes fun of me when I talk about more school.
Counselor: Tell me more about your family.
Joe: They all work hard. They have labor-type jobs and don't make much money.
They want me Io do the same kinda thing—just live from one paycheck to another and somehow get by. You know sometimes I think they are right! Maybe I am not cut out to do any other kind of work.

After further discussion, the counselor was greatly concerned that Joe would not progress very far in the career decision-making process with faulty belief such as those he had expressed. The counselor jotted the following note of thinking patterns that could inhibit foe's career development:

• Apparent anxiety about career planning
• Lack of flexibility in decision making
• Lack of willingness to consider a variety of occupations
• Faulty beliefs about career decisions making and occupational environments
• Lack of family support
• Limited career choices from salient messages in the environment

Counselor: Joe, we can help you make a career decision, but first we both should learn more about your career beliefs. Would you be interested in taking an inventory that would help us understand more about your beliefs and your assumptions about careers?

Joe: Since, I guess so, but I don't understand how it will help me.
Counselor: Let me explain how we will use the results. We can find out about some of I be factors that influence your decisions, what may be necessary to make you feel happy about your future, and changes you are willing to make. Discussing these sub-jects should help in clarifying your role and my role in the career decision-making process.
The results of the Career Beliefs Inventory (CBI) (Krumboltx, 1988) described in Chapter 6, not surprisingly, indicated low scores on several scales, especially on acceptance of uncertainty and on openness. Low scores on these scales indicate that excessive anxiety can lead to viewing career decision making as overwhelming, and Joe's scores also suggested that he had fears about the reactions of others. The coun-selor felt more certain about his tentative conclusions from the intake interview. In the next session with Joe, and following a review of the purposes of the inventory and its scores, the following exchange took place:
Counselor: Joe, could you tell me the reasons you are uncertain about your career plans?
Joe: Nobody in my family has ever had much schooling. I guess it's not in me to go for more education or training.
Counselor: So you believe that you cannot be successful in higher education because your family has not?
Joe: Yes, I believe that's true.
Counselor: Could you tell me why you feel this way?
Joe: They don't think I can do it.
Counselor: What kind of grades did you make in the high school equivalency courses?
Joe: I made good grades—above C in every course and I got two A's.
Counselor: What does this tell you about your ability to do academic work?
Joe: OK, I guess I was successful then, but that does not mean I could do the same in college.
Counselor: You are absolutely right, '["here are no guarantees, but we have known for a long time that past academic performance is a good indicator of future performance in school.
Joe: But my brother and mom keep telling me that we aren't the kind to go to college.
Counselor: If I provide you with information about your chances of making a C or better in community college, would you be willing to talk with your family about options you are considering for the future?
Joe: Well, I guess so.
Each of the scales with low scores was discussed in a similar manner, that is, faulty beliefs were identified, followed by specific plans of actions. The counselor continued to confront Joe with the facts about individuals who were the first in their family to complete a college degree and stressed that he must arrive at a decision based on his own desires and potential.

The counselor and Joe agreed that he should take an achievement test to determine his academic deficiencies. Their plan was to have Joe improve his skills as a means of improving his chances of being a successful college student. In the next four months Joe spent a considerable part of his spare time in studying and being tutored to improve basic academic skills. He also gained a great deal of confidence by being involved in such a project. A follow-up test boosted Joe's confidence that he had shown significant academic progress.

The counselor and Joe met on a regular basis to discuss his interests and to change his faulty beliefs, The counselor met with less resistance from Joe as he became more comfortable in the college environment. Finally, Joe convinced his parents to visit with the counselor about his future plans. To everyone s surprise, especially Joe's they agreed to let Joe "give it a try for a semester."

Joe and the counselor agreed that they would delay making a firm career commitment at this lime. They both felt that Joe should be open to look at several options as he progressed in college.

In this case, the CBI provided the stimulus for discussing relevant career problems that inhibited Joe from making choices in his best interests. Faulty, beliefs are to be challenged in learning theory counseling. Clients are to be empowered n their abilities and improve them as well as to explore various options before making firm career commitment. Learning to improve his skills gave Joe confidence in his ability to perform at a college level.

Solution Preview

(1) Apply a theoretical framework either from the developmental perspective or from the person-in-environment perspective.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, as well as career maturity attitudes, have been associated with certainty of career choice (Greenhaus & Connolly, 1982 as cited in Ferrell & Horvath, 1999). Intrinsic motivation refers to performing some behavior associated with personal rewards, goals or expectations. Extrinsic motivation influences individuals to engage in behavior that either reduces biological needs or to obtain some incentives (Dacey, Baltzell, & Zaichkowsky, 2008).

In the current case study, Joe is expressing extreme uncertainty about his life circumstances, as well as, making a career choice. Super (1984 as cited in Ferrell & Horvarth, 1999) suggests that some developmental theories tend to neglect the processes and components of uncertainty involved in making career decisions. However, according to Farrell and Horvath (1999), the uncertainty concerning future career preferences is complex and should involve combining personal and occupational considerations when ...

Solution Summary

This solution proposes a theoretical framework for a trait-based approach to career exploration