(2) Differentiate proximate and ultimate causes of behavior.
(3) Which of the various types of learning is occurring in my dog [see attachment for the example].
See attached file for full problem description.
Natural selection requires that (1) there is variation in the phenotype, (2) fitness varies with phenotype (individuals with one trait have more offspring than individuals with a different trait), and (3) the trait in question is genetically transmitted to offspring.
In the case of elk, (1) some elk have bigger antlers than others, (2) elks with large antlers tend to have more ...