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Types of symbiosis and examples

"List two important types of symbiosis, and define and provide an example of each."

"Define detritus feeders and decomposers, and explain their importance in ecosystems."

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"List two important types of symbiosis, and define and provide an example of each."

(1) Commensalism - refers to an interaction between two living organisms, where one organism benefits and the other is
neither harmed nor helped.
Ex. Remora and sharks. The dorsal fin of the remora (a bony fish) is modified into a sucker with which it forms a
temporary attachment to the shark. When the shark feeds, the remora picks up
scraps. The shark makes no attempt to prey on the remora.

(2) Mutualism - is an interaction between two or more species where both species derive benefit and neither is harmed.
Ex. the relationship between clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of tropical sea anemones. The territorial fish
protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles
of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators (a special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging
tentacles).

"Define detritus feeders and decomposers, and explain their importance in ecosystems."

Detritus feeders are smaller organisms that feed on detritus or decomposing organic material, which may have been
partially or fully decomposed by the decomposers. They also prepare dead matter
for final disassembly by bacteria and fungi. They play a very important role in soil formation. The detritus feeders
are enormously important in the oceans too, because everything that dies
eventually comes down to the seafloor, or benthos. In the seafloor mud, vast numbers of sea worms and other small
organisms prepare dead matter for the final decomposition by bacteria.

Decomposers are organisms that transform the bodies of both plants and animals back into the basic constituents
they were made from. Without these little recyclers, there would be no nutrients available for new lives to grow on.
Without them, our entire planet would be buried deep in dead plants and animals.

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