Epigenetics and complex gene regulation have fundamentally altered the way we deal with bioinformatics and biotechnology. Come to the exam prepared to discuss how the following topics related to or affected by this newfound knowledge:
(a) linking phenotype to genotype
(b) the use of cancer cell lines and stem cell lines in research in light of the genetic changes that made the cells immortal
(c) the interpretation that the 99% of our DNA that is never translated to protein is "garbage"
Hello. Here is a general discussion including specific mechanisms for each part of the question:
(A) Sutton and Boveri noted that the actions of genes and chromosomes during the formation of gametes is identical. Variation is the mechanism by which this occurs. Variation refers to changes in physical appearance and are due to mutation (any change in genetic information). Alleles are different forms of the same gene. The term Phenotype describes the physical appearance (observable form) whereas Genotype describes the combination of alleles responsible for the phenotype.
Understanding DNA organization in chromosomes helps to explain the mechanisms behind the genotype and phenotype. Bacterial Chromosomes are relatively simple DNA molecules, only a single nucleic acid molecule. Viral Chromosomes are either DNA or RNA, either single-stranded or double stranded, either circular or linear chromosomes; the way the gene is packaged is important as this effects its expression.
There are also specialized chromosomes called Lampbrush Chromosomes which are in most vertebrate oocytes (egg development). Lampbrush chromosomes are meiotic chromosomes (naturally condensed) and are extended or uncoiled versions of normal chromosomes. They contain loops that extend away from the central axis of the chromosome.
(B) A key ...
Epignetics and complex gene regulations are examined.