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Chemiosmotic Theory/ATP/Earth's Cycles/Hypertheromphiles

Describe the chemiosmotic theory of ATP generation.

b) Compare the efficiency of generating ATP through aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.

c) List some of the most important uses of the nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur that microorganisms obtain from their environment.

d) When an egg is placed in a beaker of boiling water, changes in the egg occur almost immediately. What happens and why do the contents of the egg look so different from the contents of an unboiled egg?

e) In reference to your answer in d., explain how it can be that prokaryotes known as hyperthermophiles thrive (as well as grow optimally) on boiling hot springs? How would the proteins of these organisms differ from those found in an egg?

Solution Preview

The chemiosmotic theory explains the function of the electron transport chains, which states that as electrons are transferred down the electron transport system, energy is released through a series oxidative-reductive reactions. This energy allows the transport of H+ across a membrane to create an electrochemical gradient. This creates a proton motive force that provides the enzymes, ATP synthases, with their energy. ATP can be synthesized from ADP and phosphate, which occurs across the membrane.

Aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration utilizes oxygen and glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. Aerobic ...

Solution Summary

This solution contains a describes the chemiosmotic theory; the efficiency of the production of ATP through aerobic and anaerobic respiration; importance of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur cycles; changes that occur when an egg is boiled and relates this to how hyperthermophiles can survive in hot springs.