1. Aspects of the carbohydrate, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic processes we have considered have steps that occur in the cytoplasm and the mitochondrion or other cellular organelles. What are these biochemical pathways and what metabolic regulatory purpose is served by having parts of the processes performed in different cellular compartments?
The biochemical pathways occur in different compartments of the cell. Though prokaryotic cells do not have internal membranes to separate specific cellular locations, there is partial separation of certain enzyme systems in bacteria such as glycolysis in the cytosol, protein synthesis in the ribosomes, phosphorylation and electron transport system in the cell membrane, etc. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus surrounded by a membrane along with other membrane surrounded internal organelles such as mitochondria, golgi ...
As the metabolites are synthesized in different membrane-bound compartments in eukaryotic cells, a mechanism to transport these substances between compartments is required. Thus, transport proteins are essential for many of the metabolic pathways. Each and every cell organelle is specialized to regulate a particular metabolic purpose due to the manner in which it has been structured to carry out the same.