Multiple Choice Questions on Thinking and Intelligence
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1. As she moves quietly around the restaurant where she works as a waitress, Alicia finds herself humming in her head the phrase, "Just whistle while you work?" This is an example of a/an:
c. auditory image
d. cognitive schema
2. Chris must sit out the next two weeks of basketball games because of a problem with her hamstring muscle. Her eight grade coach tells her to use this off time imagining herself out on the court. He wants Chris to feel her body running down the court, to see herself reaching for the ball and shooting a basket. It is most likely that Chris's coach is:
a. trying to keep her spirits up during the time she won't be able to play.
b. trying to change her perspective and see the game through his eyes.
c. keeping her involved in the game, so she'll stop brooding over her injury.
d. encouraging her to rehearse in this way, so her performance will improve when she's ready to play again.
3. When Mitch was learning to drive, he couldn't imagine how he'd ever remember to steer the wheel, flip on the turn signal, step on the gas pedal, and still manage to keep the car on the road. Now that he has been driving for three years, Mitch's reactions have become so automatic that, when he's driving is/are involved.
a. nonconscious processes
b. convergent thinking
c. subconscious processes
d. divergent thinking
4. Dawn and Erin can't figure out how to fit their clothes, furniture, futons, computers, and a refrigerator into their small dorm room. Just when it seems hopeless, Erin says, "Aha, I've got it!" She begins moving the items around until they fit perfectly. Erin's sudden revelation is most likely due to:
a. clues that triggered nonconscious processing about the room arrangement, followed by conscious awareness of the solution.
b. simplifying the process by imagining a prototype of a dorm room, then making a decision based on that prototype.
c. subconscious processing and automatic routines that Erin has learned so well that she can perform them without thinking.
d. beginning the task in a state of mindlessness, then directing her conscious thinking to the task at hand.
5. Zelda dials her boyfriend's number instead of her mother's, as she intended. Zelda correctly attributes her error to:
a. pre-reflecting reasoning.
c. implicit learning
d. inductive reasoning
6. Scientist make very careful observations. From those observations they draw a conclusion, while remaining open to the fact that there may be several possible correct answers. This leads us to conclude that science depends heavily on reasoning.
7. A production executive, using deductive reasoning as an approach to solving production problems, concludes that there is only one correct solution to every problem. The flaw in his reasoning is that:
a. it allows his managers to find their own answers.
b. clear solutions to manufacturing problems are rare.
c. it doesn't allow for dialectical reasoning.
d. it relies too heavily on what has proved effective in the past.
8. Reflective judgment requires an ability to think critically about everyday problems and be prepared to:
a. stand up for what you believe.
b. reassess conclusions in the light of new information.
c. discover that there is no good an answer for anything in life.
d. reflect on what is presented, ask questions, and search of that single correct answer that is "out there."
9. Neville's physician has told him that there is no association between weather conditions and his arthritis pain. Nonetheless, Neville is convinced that his arthritis will act up whenever the barometric pressure changes. His conviction that a meaningful pattern exists when it doesn't is an example of:
b. justification of effort.
c. stereotype threat
d. a mental set.
10. As Alicia awaits the birth of her first grandchild, she says she doesn't care if it is a boy or a girl as long as the baby is healthy. When she holds her new granddaughter for the first time, Alicia reveals that she knew all along that her daughter would have a little girl. Alicia's barrier to rational reasoning in this instance is a case of:
a. hindsight bias
b. confirmation bias
c. a mental set
d. justification of effort
11. Paul thinks of himself as an excellent negotiator after purchasing a brand new car. Two months later, his brother-in-law Noah purchases the same model for $1,000 less than Paul paid! According to cognitive dissonance theory, Paul will probably:
a. decide that he isn't as good as he thought at negotiating the price of a car.
b. ask Noah to come along the next time he purchases a car.
c. tell himself he's glad he's had his new car for these two months, even though prices dropped later.
d. begin to dislike his new car, noticing little defects that bother him.
12. Which one of the following statements about the g factor is TRUE?
a. G factor is a statistical method for evaluating aptitude test scores.
b. There is a great deal of dispute among psychologists about the existence of general intellectual ability shared by all humans.
c. G factor is the broad term for measurement of mental ability.
d. G factor was used by Alfred Binet to determine a child's mental age (MA).
13. The first intelligence test was developed by Alfred Binet as a way to:
a. identify slow learners.
b. isolate children in the top one percent of the intelligence scale.
c. identify children who demonstrate the g factor.
d. measure test anxiety.
14. David Wechsler designed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to produce separate IQ scores.
a. componential, experimental, and contextual
b. tacit knowledge and emotional intelligence
c. culture-free and general knowledge
_d. general, verbal, and performance
15. Enrique, a psychologist, is concerned about his client Carmen who is scheduled to take an advanced math test. It seems she's convinced that men have better mathematical minds than women. Enrique's concern is that this will hinder Carmen's ability to perform well on the math exam.
a. test anxiety
b. gender dissonance
c. gender bias
d. stereotype threat
16. Bill, a successful salesman, knows exactly what to say to his customers to make them feel at ease. He reads each unique situation and responds appropriately. Clearly, Bill possesses a highly developed intelligence.
17. Logan understands the material in his statistics class, but he spends the entire test period on the most difficult problems and never gets to the ones he knows how to solve. It's evident that Logan needs to improve his:
a. reflective judgment
b. cognitive dissonance
c. componential intelligence
d. justification of effort
18. When Bob, a brilliant physicist, gets anxious about solving a problem, he becomes belligerent with his coworkers. Cognitive psychologists would describe Bob's behavior as being due to low:
b. emotional intelligence
c. emotional threshold
d. social tolerance
19. When Wolfgang Kohler put tempting bananas out of the reach of chimpanzees, he found that:
_a. the apes often sat quietly at first, then seemed to have a sudden insight into a solution.
b. the apes performed impressive gymnastic maneuvers to get the bananas, but did not know how to use tools.
c. many of the apes showed humanlike emotions, and some even demonstrated near-human cognitive abilities.
d. almost all of the apes seemed to have sudden insights into a solution, followed by positive action.
20. Cognitive ethologists agree that animals' intelligence is demonstrated in their ability to anticipate future events, make choices and plans, then:
a. respond to reinforcement
b. avoid dangerous situations
c. act on their environment to gain rewards
_d. coordinate activities
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